Structural Equation Modeling in Educational Research

Petri Nokelainen (

Learning material

Lectures [PPT]

Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS [PDF]

Data files [Folder]


Bollen, K. (1989). Structural Equations with Latent Variables. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham R. L., & Black, W. C. (1995). Multivariate Data Analysis. Fourth edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Kaplan, D. (2000). Structural Equation Modeling. Foundations and Extensions. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Raykov, T., & Marcoulides, G. (2000). A First Course in Structural Equation Modeling. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Schumacker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (2004). A Beginner's Guide to Structural Equation Modeling. Second edition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Tabachnick, B ., & Fidell, L. (1996). Using Multivariate Statistics. New York: HarperCollins.


Nokelainen, P. (1999). Introduction to Structural Equation Modeling. Hämeenlinna: RCVE. [PDF]

Nokelainen, P., Silander, T., Ruohotie, P., & Tirri, H. (2007). Investigating the Number of Non-linear and Multi-modal Relationships between Observed Variables Measuring a Growth-oriented Atmosphere. Quality & Quantity, 41(6), 869-890. [PDF]

Tirri, K., Nokelainen, P., & Komulainen, E. (in press). Multiple Intelligences: Can they be measured? Accepted for publication in the Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling. [PDF]


AMOS development
Student version 5.01 (32.5 Mb, allows max. of 8 observed variables) [European mirror]




Assignment 1. Write a 1500 - 2000 word essay that describes a pratical scenario of applying structural equation modeling (SEM) to your own research. Here are few starting points: Try to formulate at least one quantitative research question / problem that could be solved with SEM. Describe how you would use SEM to solve the problem: Write about the method, including at least description of real or fictive sample, data collection, statistical procedures and which one of the SEM approaches (e.g., CFA, path analysis) you choose to use. Try to ponder pros and coins of this approache. Memorize lectures and read articles, at least those provided in the course and refer to them using APA -style references.

Assignment 2. Complete "Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS" exercises 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b.