Glossary of the European Union and European Communities
Glossary of The European Union and European Communities
(Acronyms, Initiatives, Institutions, Policies, Programmes and Terms)
Content author: Derek Urwin, University of Aberdeen

Revised and Reformatted for the FAST Area Studies Program Website
Department of Translation Studies, University of Tampere, Finland
(See also the BBC Inside Europe resources and the BBC European Union Glossary)

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - Y

Glossary - A Entries -- (Top)

AAT. Advanced Authoring Tools, a DELTA project.

ABEL. A database of the 'L' series of the Official Journal.

ABEX.An EUREKA project on the automatic calculation and presentation of Fault Tree Analysis.

ACCESS. Advanced Customers Connections, an Evolutionary Systems Strategy, a RACE project.

ACE. Action by the Community relating to the Environment, for promotion of clean technology and the recycling of waste products.

ACE. An Operation PHARE project to develop research collaboration in economic between the EC and Eastern European countries.

ACES. A DELTA project on a courseware engineering system.

ACNAT. A 1992 initiative on the preservation and/or re-establishment of endangered habitats and species.

ACP States. See African, Caribbean and Pacific States

Acquis Communautaire. The collectivity of all the secondary legislation - directives, decisions and regulations - of the EC. New entrants to the EC have to accept the existing acquis.

Action Committee for a United States of Europe. An interest group of political and trade union leaders founded by Jean Monnet in 1955 after the failure of the European Defence Community (EDC)

Action on Employment and Equality for Women. See Women's Employment and Equality Office

Action Plan for the Mediterranean. See Mediterranean Policy

ACTU. An internal database of Integrated Information Systems of written procedures and documents of the Secretariat-General

ADAM. Advanced Architecture in Medicine, an AIM project.

Additionality. The principle which means that funding from the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) is additional to that provided by national and local authorities.

ADECO. A Joint Research Centre (JRC) workshop for the dismantling of fuels, part of its nuclear materials safety programme.

Ad Hoc Group on Immigration. An element of TREVI established in 1986 to assist in the coordination and harmonization of national visa, asylum, and immigration policies.

ADKMS. Advanced Data and Knowledge Management Systems, an ESPRIT project.

Adonnino Report. See Committee for a People's Europe.

ADP. Agricultural Development Programme, a term describing regional policy programmes of rural regeneration.

Advanced Informatics in Medicine. See AIM.

Advisory Committee for Innovation and Technology Transfer. See Strategic Programme for Innovation and Technology Transfer

Advisory Committee on Banking. Established in 1977 and consisting of three representatives from each of the national bodies responsible for the supervision of national banks.

Advisory Committee on Foodstuffs. Established in 1975 to work for the harmonization of national laws on foodstuffs, with a membership drawn from national economic and consumer associations.

Advisory Committee on Safety, Hygiene and Health Protection At Work. Estblished in 1974 to advise on problems and improvements in industrial safety and health in all industrial areas other than those controlled by the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC).

Advocates General. Members of the Court of Justice who act as a kind of public prosecutor in cases before the Court, as well as reviewing evidence in a case and indicating a proposed verdict..

AEMI. Advanced Environment for Medical Image Interpretation, an AIM project.

AETR Judgment. A 1971 ruling by the Court of Justice establishing the principles that where the EC have an explicit internal competence, they also have a parallel external competence where Member States cannot act independently of the EC in entering into international agreements.

African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) States. The group of developing countries which belong to the Lomé Convention, by which most of their products are allowed into the EC on a non-reciprocal basis. The membership is currently 70 countries, and they are also eligible to grants from the European Development Fund (EDF) and loans from the European Investment Bank (EIB).

AGEFT. Agricultural Electronic Fund Transfer, an on-line database of information supplied by the disbursing agencies to the European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund (EAGGF).

Aggregate Measure of Support. The calculation of the cost to taxpayers and consumers of Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) farm support and export subsidies.

AGINFO. A database of Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) trade figures.

AGREP. Agricultural Research Projects, a database in Integrated Information Systems (SII)

AGREX. Agricultural Guarantee Fund Expenditure, a CADDIA computer system for monitoring and recording payments and expenditure of the Member States within the Guarantee Section of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP).

Agricultural Policy. See Common Agricultural Policy (CAP).

AGRIMED. The collection of joint research programmes since 1984 that focus on the Mediterranean regions of the EC and on reducing the socioeconomic disparaities between these areas and the rest of the EC.

AGRIS. An international information system for agricultural scienes and technology.

AGROMET. A meteorological database within CADDIA.

AIDA. Advanced Integrated Circuit Design Aids, an ESPRIT programme.

AIDMED. Assistant for Interacting with Multimedia Medical Databases, an AIM project.

AILE. A HELIOS project on the social integration of disabled people.

AIM. Advanced Informatics in Medicine, a 1988 research programme on the development and application of information technology and telecommunications to medicine and health care for both medical practitioners and manufacturers of medical products and equipment.

AIN-ED. A data exchange programme within CADDIA.

AIR. A HELIOS project on innovation and re-adaptation.

Air Transport Policy. Subject to EC competition policy only since 1986, but further progress has been slow, although the Commission has since 1988 possessed substantial investigatory powers. Airline agreements and cooperative arrangements are subject to Commission approval and EC merger policy.

ALAMOS. Automatic Lider for Air Monitoring Operating Systems, an EUREKA project on improving air quality.

Albert-Ball Report. Prepared for the European Parliament (EP) in 1983, it criticized the investment and consumption policies of the Member States, identified national obstacles to the development of EC-wide trade, and commented adversely on the fragmentation and duplication of national research and technology programmes.

ALTENER. Alternative energy, an initiative on the development of new and renewable energy reources that would be competitive and economic.

AMADEUS. An ESPRIT project on a multi-method approach to the development of universal specifications.

AMICE. An ESPRIT project on the development of a European computer integrated manufacturing architecture.

AMIS. Agricultural Markets Intelligence System, a computer system and database within CADDIA on the management and market data of the European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund (EAGGF).

AMPES. An ESPRIT project on advanced logical programming environments.

AMPI. A national accounts database within CRONOS.

ANA. Agricultural Numerical Annexes, part of CADDIA.

ANIMO. A computerized network linking national veterinary authorities, set up in 1991.

ANNIE. Application of Neutral Networks for Industry in Europe, an ESPRIT project.

Annual Report. A report on EC and Member States activities submitted to the European Parliament (EP), required by the Merger Treaty.

Antici Group. The personal assistants of the Permanent Representatives, part of the Committee of Permanent Representatives (COREPER).

Anti-Poverty Programme. An element of the 1974 Social Action Programme, reconfirmed and extended in 1981.

AORS. Abnormal Occurences Reporting System, a database on incidents at nuclear power stations within the ERDS system of the Joint Research Centre (JRC).

APEX. Advanced Project for European Informatin Exchange, an EUREKA project on the aerospace industry.

APOLLO. A collaborative venture with the European Space Agency (ESA) on high-volume data transmission by satellite.

Approximation. The process of the elimination of unwanted or unnecessary differences in national legislation within the context of the internal market.

APRYCLEE. A network of national information centres of information technologies.

AQUA. Advanced Quantum Well Lasers for Multi-Gigabit Transmission, a RACE project.

AQUARIUS. A 1987 project on safeguarding the marine environment.

ARCADE. Ampere Remote Control Access Data Entry, a BRITE-EURAM on the development of a data communications service in industrial and materials technology.

Architects' Directive. A 1985 requirement that the Member States adopt a system of the mutual recognition of diplomas and other formal qualifications in architecture.

ARCHON. Architecture for Co-operaive Heterogeneous On-Line Systems, an ESPRIT project.

ARCOME. A database of organizations, researchers and publications in communications technology.

ARGOSI. Application Related Graphics and OSI Standards Integration, an ESPRIT project.

ARION. An exchange scheme for education policy-makers and professionals.

ARISE. A Reusable Infrastructure for Software Engineering, a RACE project.

Article 6 Committee. A Commission committee supervising the Financial Protocols of agreements between the EC and Mediterranean countries.

ARTISAN. A DELTA project on the development of an intelligent framework for the industrial environment.

ARPS. Agricultural Report Production System, part of CADDIA.

Arusha Agreements. Signed in 1968 between the EC and East African countries, and superseded in 1975 by the Lomé Convention.

ASCOT. Assessment of Systems and Components for Optical Communications, a RACE project.

ASMODEE. A database within Integrated Information Systems (SII) of the application of EC directives by Member States.

ASOR. An agrement governing the rules and practice of the international transport by road of passengers on charter and other non-scheduled bus services.

ASPIS. Application Software Prototype Implementation System, an ESPRIT project.

ASSET. Automated Support for Software Engineering Technology, an ESPRIT project.

ASSIST. Assessment of Information Systems and Technologies in Medicine, an AIM project.

Assizes. Consultative meetings of representatives from national legislatures intended to increase the awareness of and support for integration.

Associated African States and Madagascar (AASM). A group of developing countries associated with the European Economic Community (EEC), subsequently defined in the Yaoundé Convention. The forerunner of the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) States.

Associated Networks for European Research (RARE). A programme for the development of an independent communications infrastructure of networks and their users.

Association Agreements. Originally agreements between the EC and European states which at the time had not rejected the future possibility of applying for EC membership. They involve reciprocal arrangements for imports and exports within a customs union. Agreements are supervised by an Association Council representing both parties. The similar agreements with Eastern European countries after 1991 are known as Europe Agreements.

ASTERIX. A DRIVE project on system and scenario simulation.

ASTRA. An ESPRIT project on advanced and integrated office systems prototypes for European public administrations.

Asylum Policy. Broadly defined by the 1990 Dublin Convention on Asylum. Previously handled more informally through the TREVI process. In 1991 a Quick Reaction Consultation Centre was established, and asylum procedures generally tightened.

ATES. Advanced Techniques Integration into Efficient Scientific Software, an ESPRIT project.

ATIS. A tourist information and exchange project within the IMPACT programme.

ATMOSPHERE. Atmospheric Monitoring System for Protection of Health and Environment from Risky Emissions, an EUREKA project on industrial atmospheric pollution.

Atmospheric Pollution. An element of environment policy since the mid-1980s, with several directives on car emissions and industrial pollution. Future proposals include the introduction of a carbon tax.

ATOMS. An EUREKA project on high density mass storage memory systems.

ATTAIN. Applicability in Transport and Traffic of Artificial Intelligence, a DRIVE project.

Audiovisual Eureka. A 1989 project intended to develop European television production and high technology research and development.

Audit Board. Established by the Treaty of Rome to examine EC accounts of revenue and expenditure, but with limited powers. Replaced in 1977 by the Court of Auditors.

AUTOPOLIS. Automatic Policing Information System, a DRIVE project.

AVAIT. An EUREKA project on tourist information.

AVICA. Advanced Video Endoscopy Image Communication and Analysis, an AIM project.

AVICENNA. A 1991 programme of scientific, technological and educational cooperation with the Maghreb States.

AVIS. The statement isued by the Commission on the acceptability of a formal application by a state for EC membership.

Return to Alphabetical Index

Glossary - B Entries -- (Top)

BABEL. Broadcasting Across the Barriers of European Languages, a MEDIA initiative.

Balladur Memorandum. A 1988 French statement on the reforms to the European Monetary system (EMS) necessary for an effective internal market. The core ideas were the maintaining of identical margins of permissible currency fluctuations and the participation of all Member States in the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM).

Bank for International Settlements. Established in 1930 as an association of European national banks. It has provided a headquarters for the Committee of the Governors of the Central Banks and handles the European Monetary Cooperation Fund (EMCF) for the EC.

Barber Protocol. A Protocol of the Treaty on European Union clarifying and limiting the criteria for equal pay for equal work by men and women.

Barre Plan. A 1970 French proposal outlining a strategy for Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). It advocated a monetarist approach which it believed would lead to a harmonization of economic policies by the Member States.

BARTOC. Bus Advanced Real Time Operational Control, a DRIVE project.

Basic Price. Within the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), the cost of production price for pigmeat, fruit and vegetables. The European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund (EAGGF) intervenes to purchase produce if the average market price falls below the basic price.

Basic Research in Adaptive Intelligence and Neurocomputing. See BRAIN.

Basic Research in Industrial Technologies in Europe (BRITE). A 1985 programme to encourage research into the development of new technologies, manufacturing processes and products in older industrial economic sectors. Renewed in 1988, it was merged with European Research in Advanced Materials (EURAM), as BRITE-EURAM.

Basket of Currencies. Those currencies which together determine the value of the European Currency Unit (ECU). Each currency in the basket is weighted according to its country's gross national product (GNP), trade, and short-term credit quotas. Part of the European Monetary System (EMS), full participation in the basket was regarded as an important first step towards full Economic and Monetary Union (EMU).

BDII. An EUREKA project on the development of a database for the distribution of expert systems.

Berlaymont. The Commission building in Brussels, constructed in 1969, but evacuated in 1992 for substantial renovation due to the use of asbestos in the original construction. A term often used to describe the Commission and the administrative structures of the EC, but frequently in a negative sense, referring to bureaucratization and red tape.

BERTIE. A DRIVE project on changes in drive behaviour due to the use of RTI systems.

BEUC. See Consumers' Consultative Committee.

BIFI. The financial accounts domain on CRONOS.

BIOLAB. Integrated Biomedical Laboratory, an AIM project.

Biomolecular Engineering Programme (BEP). See Biotechnology Action Programme (BAP).

BIOREP. The Permanent Inventory of Biotechnical Research Projects in the EC.

Biotechnology Action Programme (BAP). Established in 1985 as a successor to the 1982 Biomolecular Engineering Programme (BEP) and intended to sponsor developments that could have an economic and industrial application. Concluded in 1989, but its objectives were included in the 1990 BRIDGE programme.

Biotechnology Research for Innovation, Development and Growth in Europe. See BRIDGE.

Birkelbach Report. A 1962 document which reviewed the question of association with and membership of the EC, recommending that eligibility for membership should be restricted to democratic states which had a Western military and political alignment.

BISE. The energy and industry domain on CRONOS.

Black List. An inventory of dangerous substances discharged into the marine environment, first drawn up in 1976.

Blair House Agreement. A compromise settlement between the USA and the EC in 1993 on an agricultural trade structure to rescue the possible collapse of the Uruguay Round of talks within the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

Blue Book. A proposal for a Europe of Education and Culture that would involve the extension of the Community Programme for Education and Training in Technology (COMETT) and the European Community Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students (ERASMUS) to the members of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). The extension occurred in 1991.

Block Exemptions. Agreements between the EC and other countries which include exemptions from the general prohibition by the EC of restrictive trade agreements.

BRAIN. Basic Research in Adaptive Intelligence and Neurocomputing, a major programme within the SCIENCE initiative.

Bremen Summit. A 1978 meeting of the European Council which accepted the need for a more coherent monetary system, a decision which led to the creation of the European Monetary System (EMS).

Breydel. The building providing a temporary headquarters in Brussels for the Commission after 1992 while the Berlaymont building was being renovated.

BRIDGE. Biotechnology Research for Innovation, Development and Growth in Europe, a 1990 programme to carry forward the Biotechnoogy Action Programme (BAP) objectives and to construct an international system of technology transfer for industry and agriculture.

BRITE. See Basic Research in Industrial Technologies in Europe

BRITE-EURAM. A 1989 initiative on advanced industrial materials technology, design methodology and quality assurance, combining the earlier Basic Research in Industrial Technologies in Europe (BRITE) and European Research in Advanced Materials (EURAM) programmes.

Broadcasting. See Cultural Policy; Media Policy.

Budget. Originally financed by contributions from the Member States, but after 1975 by a system of EC own resources, but these were not formally recognized until the Treaty on European Union. Budget revenue comes from several sources: levies on food imports into the EC; customs duties on non-agricultural imports; a proportion of the value added tax (VAT) levied nationally by the Member States; contributions from the Member States adjusted to their share of EC GNP. VAT contributions provide over one-half of EC revenue. The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) has a separate revenue source in a direct levy on EC coal and steel enterprises. The EC cannot borrow or accumulate deficits: the budget must be set annually and must be in balance, but in 1993 detailed expenditure ceilings were set through to 1999.

Business and Innovation Centres (BICs). A network set up in 1984 to encourage innovation and a diversification of activity among small enterprises.

Business Cooperation Centre (BCC). A liaison office of the Commission providing both it and European enterprsies with information on regulations and marketing, also operating a Business Cooperation Network (BC-NET) to encourage collaboration between enterprises.

Business Cooperation Network (BC-NET). See Business Cooperation Centre (BCC).

Butter Mountain. A derisory term referring to the surplus of agricultural produce generated by the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP).

BWG. A permanent working group that collects and reviews information on biomedicine and health care.

Return to Alphabetical Index

Glossary - C Entries -- (Top)

Cabinet. The group of personal advisers and aides attached to and appointed by each Commissioner.

Cabotage. the right of drivers of commercial vehicles to ply for hire in another country, introduced as an element of road transport policy in 1993.

CACOHIS. Computer Aided Community Oral Health Information System, an AIM project.

CACTI. Common Agricultural Customs Transmission of Information, part of CADDIA.

CADDIA. See Cooperation in Automation of Data and Documentation for Imports/Exports and Agriculture

CAMAC. Case Based Hospital Management and Clinical Evaluation in Europe, an AIM project.

CAMAR. Competition of Agriculture and Management of Agricultural Resources, a 1989 programme to assist farmers to cope with overproduction while still maintaining income levels.

CAMARC. Computer Aided Movement Analysis in a Rehabilitation Context, an AIM project.

CAMCE. Computer Aided Multimedia Courseware Engineering, a DELTA project.

CAN. Committee of an Advanced Nature, formed to advise on the management of the DOSES programme.

CAPTIVE. Collaborative Authoring Production and Transmission of Interactive Video for Education, a DELTA project.

Carbon Tax. A proposed energy tax on all non-renewable fuel.

CARGOES. A DRIVE project on the Integration of Dynamic Route Guidance and Traffic Central Systems.

Cartels. See Competition Policy; Industrial Policy; Transport Policy.

CARTOON. The European Association of Animated Films, linked to the MEDIA programme.

CASSIOPE. Computer Aided System for Scheduling, Information and Operation of Public Transport in Europe, a DRIVE project on urban public transport systems.

Cassis de Dijon. A 1979 ruling (Rewe-Zentral AG v. Bundesmonopolverwaltung fr Branntwein) by the Court of Justice that where a product is manufactured and legally on sale in one Member State, another Member State cannot prohibit its import and sale, except on the grounds that it constitutes a risk to public health. It allowed the EC to develop the principle of mutual recognition, the essence of which was formally incorporated into the Single European Act (SEA).

Catch-All Clause. An Article in EC treaties which permits the EC to do things not otherwise specified in the treaties. It has been most common in external affairs.

Cecchini Report. A 1988 survey of the EC economy which detailed and costed the obstacles that hindered the development of an internal market.

CEDB. Component Event Data Bank, part of the ERDS system of the Joint Research Centre (JRC).

CEDEFOP. See European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training

CELAD. Coordination Group on Drugs, established as part of the TREVI system in 1989 to promote cooperation on drug-related problems, especially drug trafficking.

CELEX. See Communitatis Europae Lex

CEN. See European Committee for Standardization

CENELEC. See European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization

Centre for Information and Documentation (CID). An agency for the collection of data on nuclear energy, within the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM).

Centre for the Development of Industry. Established in 1984 under the Third Lomé Convention to help the establishment of industrial enterprises in the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) States.

CERACS. Comparative Evaluation of the Different Radiating Cables and Systems Technologies, a DRIVE project.

CERIF. Common European Research Project Information Format, a 1991 project for the exchange of information on research projects among the Member States and the development of European research databases.

CERISE. An EUREKA project for the development of a European centre for image synthesis and computer image technology.

CEVMA. A 1986 project to promote the use of alternative methods to replace experimentation upon animals in scientific research.

Chapter. A subdivision of a Title in a EC treaty. A Chapter can be subdivided into Sections.

Charlemagne Building. The headquarters in Brussels of the Council of Ministers.

Charter of Fundamental Social Rights. The title of the original 1988 document which later became the Social Charter or Social Chapter, setting out a code of practice that dealt with living and working conditions, training and equal opportunities, gender equality, underprivileged groups, and health and safety protection.

Chasse Gardée. A phrase (meaning protected competition) used by opponents of too great a move towards free trade, who wish a more protected EC market.

Cheysson Facility. A financial cooperation scheme offering venture capital for companies wishing to establish collaborative activities in Asia and Latin America.

CHIC. Community Health Information Classification and Coding, an AIM project.

CHIEF. See Customs Handling of Import and Export Freight

CHRISTINE. Characteristics and Requirements of Information Systems based on Traffic Data in an Integrated Network Environment, a DRIVE project.

CIM. Computer Integrated Manufacturing, an ESPRIT project on the use of information technology in industrial environments.

CIRCE. European Communities Information and Documentary Research Centre, replaced by Integrated Information Systems (SII).

CIRD. Interservice Committee for Research and Development, established in 1975 as a coordinating forum for EC administrators in the field of science and technology research.

Citizens' Europe Advisory Service. Established in 1990 to advise individuals of their rights and to provide information on social benefits.

Citizenship. First defined beyond limited and specified individual, mainly economic, rights in the Treaty on European Union, but it remains unclear what citizenship is or involves. There is no reference to the duties of citizens, and because the European Union does not have a legal personality and because sovereignty still rests with the Member States, citzenship would seem to be confined to the EC pillar, which is the only element of the EU where the Court of Justice has jurisdiction.

CJUS. A database of case law and court judgments within Communitatis Europae Lex.

CNMB. Central Nuclear Measurements Bureau, part of the Joint Research Centre (JRC).

COCOS. Components for Future Computing Systems, an ESPRIT project.

Co-Decision Procedure. Refers to the treaty provisions which describe the conciliation procedure within decision-making to be followed by EC institutions when they fail to agree on proposed legislation.

CODEST. Committee for the European Development of Science and Technology, an advisory body on the funding of collaborative research projects.

CODINE. Colour Desktop Publishing, an ESPRIT project.

Cohesion. A financial redistribution policy for reducing national and regional socioeconomic disparities, especially through a new structural fund, the Cohesion Fund.

Cohesion Fund. See Cohesion.

COLINE. An information network on consumer rights, established in 1994.

COMANDOS. Construction and Management of Distributed Office Systems, an ESPRIT project.

Combined Nomenclature (CN). An integrated goods nomenclature set up in 1988 and replacing two earlier systems: the Common External Tariff (CET) nomenclature, and NIMEXE.

COM Documents. Working documents of the Commission prepared by the Directorates-General for the Commission agenda. They contain proposals for legislation, policy discussion papers, and reports on policy implementation.

COMEDI. Commerce Electronic Data Interchange, a 1993 initiative on developing a trans-European statistical information and telematics infrastructure and network.

COMETT. See Community Programme for Education and Training in Technology

COMEXT. A database of external trade statistics in Eurostat.

COMIS. An ESPRIT project on the standardization of moving images on digital storage media.

Comitology. The scrutiny of decision-making within committees of the Commission.

Commercial Policy. See Competition Policy; Internal Market.

Commission. One of the two executive institutions of the EC, and the supranational and administrative arm of the EC executive, referring to both the collectivity of the individual Commissioners and the administrative apparatus that serves them. Its major concerns focus on the initiation, supervision and implementation of EC activities and legislation. Commissioners take an oath of loyalty to the EC, swearing to totally serve the EC and not seek or take instructions from a national government or other body.

Committee for a People's Europe. Appointed by the European Council in 1984 to explore ways of strengthening popular identity with the EC. Two reports (Adonnino Reports) recommended a series of recommendations and proposals to improve the rights and freedoms of EC citizens.

Committee for the Creation of European Monetary Union. An interest group of politicians, financiers and industrialists established in 1988 to argue the case for full Economic and Monetary Union (EMU).

Committee of Agricultural Organizations in the European Economic Community (COPA). A transnational federation of farming unions and associations which supplements the activities of the national agricultural unions in lobbying the institutions of the EC on behalf of farming interests.

Committee of Permanent Representatives (COREPER). The heads of the Permanent Representation and their supporting delegations maintained by each Member State in Brussels.. The service agent and gatekeeper for the Council of Ministers, it reviews and negotiates on impending proposals and prepares the agenda for Council meetings. Its existence was formally recognized only in the Treaty on European Union.

Committee of the Governors of the Central Banks. A consultative body established in 1964 to oversee and comment upon monetary developments.

Committee of the Regions. Established by the Treaty on European Union and inaugurated in 1994 as a consultative forum for representatives of regional and local authorities.

Committee of Three Wise Men. An ad hoc body set up in 1978 by the European Council to review the operation of EC institutions with a view to recommending how they could be made more effective. It reported in 1979.

Committee on Institutions. See Dooge Committee

Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Originally created with three main components: a single market for agricultural products, with common prices; a common external tariff (CET) on agricultural imports; and common financial responsibility. Its core is the guaranteed price system and the intervention (where food surpluses occur) system, administered by the European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund (EAGGF), which preserve farm incomes. The price and intervention systems have consumed the bulk of EC expenditure, keeping food prices higher than those determined by the market, and creating huge stocks of surplus produce. Constraints on CAP spending were first imposed in 1984, and extended in 1988 and again in 1992.

Common Carrier Legislation. Requires energy transmission systems to carry energy between any third party supplier and the consumer at a reasonable tariff.

Common Commercial Policy. See Competition Policy; Internal Market.

Common External Tariff (CET). Essential to any customs union, and first introduced in the early 1960s as an average of the customs levies of the Member States.

Common Fisheries Policy. Established in 1983 for a twenty-year period, and focusing on access to and the preservation of fish stocks. While all EC waters were to be open to all EC fishermen (except for a limited coastal range), fishing was governed by the Total Allowable Catch (TAC), a quota system for each Member State and for each species of fish believed to be at risk from overfishing. Guide prices and withdrawal prices are set for each category of fish, and compensation is provided where catches have to be withdrawn from the market. A Financial Instrument for Fisheries Guidance was introduced into the structural funds in 1992.

Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). One of the two intergovernmental pillars of the European Union created by the Treaty on European Union. Its objectives are to safeguard the common values, interests and security of the EU, to preserve peace and strengthen international security, to promote international cooperation, and to develop democracy, the rule of law and human rights. It also is to work for a common EU defence policy.

Common Market. A popular alternative name for the European Economic Community (EEC) and, later, for the EC.After the 1960s it was used more by those who rejected political integration, wishing the EC to be only an economic organization.

Communists and Allies. A party group in the European Parliament (EP), formed in 1973. In 1989 it formally divided into two independent factions, the Group for the European Unitarian Left (GUE) and Left Unity (CG).

Communitatis Europae Lex. An inter-institutional database of EC law, compiled by the Legal Service of the Commission, established in 1971, holding information on treaties, external relations legal agreements, EC legislation, Court of Justice rulings, and questions and answers in the European Parliament (EP).

Community Action Programme on the Vocational Training of Young People and their Preparation for Adult and Working Life. See PETRA.

Community Bureau of Reference. An agency set up to improve the reliability of physical measurements in agriculture, foodstuffs , the environment and health.

Community Committee for the Coordination of Fraud Prevention. Established to develop a plan on how the EC could combat fraud within the internal market.

Community Energy Demonstration Programme. A 1986 initiative to investigate future energy saving measures and the possibility of a single EC energy market.

Community Method. The policy-making procedures undertaken through the EC institutions, as opposed to intergovernmental structures and mechanisms.

Community Patent Convention. An initiative enabling enterprises to submit a single application for patent protection throughout the EC.

Community Preference. The situation in the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) when the price of domestic farm products falls below that of imported produce.

Community Programme for Education and Training in Technology (COMETT). Established in 1986, a programme to promote cross-national cooperation and partnerships between enterprises and universities in the training of students in new technologies, mainly through the provision of work experience in another EC country.

Community Support Frameworks. See Structural Funds.

Community Trade Mark Office. See Trade Marks.

Comparability of Transaction. The general principle that all purchasers of material who produce similar goods or perform the function should have right of equal access to the sources of production. It was first applied in the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC).

Competence. The authority of the EC to undertake specific actions, usually based upon a EC treaty.

Competition Policy. The objective of achieving a balance between imposing necessary restrictions upon unrestrained economic competition, and the removal of damaging restrictive economic practices by enterprises and governments that prevent a coherent integration of the EC market. It is underwritten by the EC treaties, which give the Commission substantial investigatory and punitive authority.

COMPEX. A system of compensation for Less Developed Countries (LDCs) when their earnings from agricultural exports to the EC fall below specified levels.

COM Programme. A FAST project on a strategic industrial system of communication.

Compulsory Expenditure. The element of the budget spent on policies arising directly from EC treaties. The major cost is the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). The European Parliament (EP) has a more restricted role in this area of expenditure.

Concertation Unit for Biotechnology in Europe (CUBE). A framework for collaboration between the Commission and the Member States.

Conciliation Procedure. The mechanism outlined in the Treaty on European Union, replacing the previous cooperation procedure, for resolving disputes between EC institutions over proposed legislation in the decision-making process. Alternatively known as the co-decision procedure.

CONCISE. Concise Networks' Central Information Service for Europe, part of the COSINE project.

Confederation of Family Organizations in the European Community. See Consumers' Consultative Committee.

Consultation Procedure. See Cooperation Procedure.

Consultative Committee of the Bars and Law Societies of the European Community (CCBE). An advisory body, linked to the Legal Service, on issues of legal coordination across the Member States.

Consultative Committee of the European Coal and Steel Community. Established in 1951 as an advisory body, and composed of representatives of producers, employees and consumers.

Consultative Council of Social and Regional Authorities. An advisory body on issues of regional development, superseded by the Committee of the Regions.

Consumer Policy. Developed after 1972, with a programme focusing on five consumer rights: protection against health and safety risks, economic justice, redress for damages, consultation, and information and education. The bulk of consumer protection legislation came only with the Third Consumer Programme of 1986. Consumer policy was incorporated into the treaties' framework in the Single European Act (SEA), with its details spelled out in the Treaty on European Union.

Consumers' Consultative Committee (CCC). Established in 1973 as an advisory body on consumer policy, with most of its membership coming from four European consumer associations: the Confederation of Family Organizations in the European Community (COFACE), the European Community Consumer Cooperatives (EURO-COOP), the European bureau of Consumers' Unions (BEUC), and the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC).

Continental Can. The popular name of a case heard by the Court of Justice where the ruling established the right of the Commission to examine cross-national company mergers within the EC.

Convergence. The process of making the national economies within the EC to work in the same direction, and a declared objective of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) by 1999.

Convergence Criteria. The conditions which will make a Member State eligible for incorporation into Economic and Monetary Union(EMU), relating to price stability, budget deficit, government debt, currency stability, and interest rates.

Cooperation. Collaboration by the Member States to secure agreement on objectives and strategies without the involvement of EC supranational institutions.

Cooperation Agreements. Trade and economic cooperation agreements by the EC with countries outside Europe.

Cooperation in Automation of Data and Documentation for Imports/Exports and Agriculture (CADDIA). An electronic information structure for the collection, storage, transmission and exchange of information, using new developments in information technology and telecommunications.

Cooperation Procedure. See Conciliation Procedure.

Coordinating Committee. Established by the Treaty on European Union as a body of senior officials to ensure coordination of actions agreed upon within Justice and Home Affairs (JHA).

Coordination Group - Free Movement. An intergovernmental body established in 1990 by the European Council to check on preparation for the ending of national border control during the implementation of the internal market.

Coordination Group on Drugs. See CELAD.

Copenhagen Report. A 1973 statement on political cooperation endorsing the Davignon Report and the continuation of European Political Cooperation (EPC).

COPENUR. The Standing Committee on Uranium Enrichment.

COPERNICUS. A 1990 initiative to create a network of science and social science departments in European universities as a step towards a European research community.

CORDIS. Community Research and Development Information Service, a database on current research projects and part of the VALUE programme.

CORECOM. An ad hoc Advisory Committee on the Reprocessing of Irradiated Nuclear Fuels.

COREPER. See Committee of Permanent Representatives

Co-Responsibility Levies. A tax on excess output introduced in 1986 to attempt to reduce the open-ended production subsidies and surpluses generated by the price support support of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP).

COREU. European Correspondence, a telex network linking the foreign ministries of the Member States.

CORINE. A 1984 programme on the collection of data on the natural environment.

COSA. The agricultural and fisheries domain on CRONOS.

COSINE. Cooperation for Open Systems Interconnection Networking in Europe, an EUREKA project on a comprehensive communications infrastructure in research and development.

COSMOS. Cost Management with Metrics of Specification, an ESPRIT project.

COST. See European Cooperation in the Field of Scientific and Technical researc.

Costa v. Enel. A 1964 Court of Justice ruling establishing the primacy of EC law over national law.

COSYMA. Code System from MARIA, part of the MARIA nuclear accident assessment programme.

Council of Ministers. The executive organ of the EC representing the Member States, with one representative per country. Because it is responsible for a broad range of policy sectors, it has no fixed membership. the composition of each Council meeting is determined by a particular policy agenda. At its core are the gatherings of the Foreign Ministers, meeting collectively as the General Affairs Council. It has its own secretariat, headed by the Committee of Permanent Representatives (COREPER). The Presidency of the Council rotates across the Member States at six-monthly intervals.

Court of Auditors. Established in 1977, and replacing the Audit Board, with the task of scrutinizing and commenting on all accounts of revenue and expenditure of EC institutions and agencies. The Treaty on European Union gave it the status of a EC institution.

Court of First Instance. Established by the Single European Act (SEA), and in operation in 1989, to reduce the work load of the Court of Justice and made responsible for certain categories of cases. Its competence was extended by the Treaty on European Union. In certain circumstances, appeals against its verdicts can be made to the Court of Justice.

Court of Justice. Responsible for ensuring that the operation of the EC corresponds with the provisions of EC treaties. It has no jurisdiction over the application and interpretation of purely national laws except where these conflict with EC law. Within its area of competence it is supreme, and there is no appeal against its rulings, but it has no jurisdiction over the intergovernmental pillars of the European Union. The Treaty of European Union gave it powers of enforcement against Member States which do not fall in with its judgements.

COVIRA. Computer vision in Radiology, an AIM project.

CRAFT. Cooperative Research Action for Technology, a 1989 initiative to encourage smaller enterprises to collaborate with each other in new and environmentally helpful research and technology.

Creeping Competence. The spread of the role and powers of the supranational institutions at the expense of those of the Member States through interpretation of EC treaties.

CREST. See Scientific and Technical Research Committee

Crocodile Group. An action group of Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) established in 1980 which sought to persuade the European Parliament (EP) to develop a plan for a radical overhaul of the EC and a strategy for political union.

CRONOS. A statistical database operated by Eurostat.

CROW. Conditions of Roads and Weather, a DRIVE project.

CUBE. See Concertation Unit for Biotechnology in Europe

Cultural Policy. Formally recognized as a EC competence in the Treaty on European Union. A relatively undeveloped policy sector, though several initiatives have been pursued, mainly in Media Policy and the preservation of Europe's cultural and architectural heritage.

Currencies. See Basket of Currencies; European Currency Unit (ECU); European Monetary System (EMS); Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM).

Customs Duties. Taxes collected by states upon imports to their territory. Abolished within the EC, they have been retained at EC external borders as a common external tariff (CET) and are regarded as EC own resources.

Customs Handling of Import and Export Freight (CHIEF). A computerized system for handling the tranport of freight into and across the EC, in operation in 1991.

Customs Union. An economic structure whereby states agree to belong to a single tariff aream with no customs duties between them. The EC customs union was largely in place by 1968.

Return to Alphabetical Index

Glossary - D Entries -- (Top)

DAB. Digital Audio Broadcasting System, an EUREKA project.

DACAR. Data Acquisition and Communication Techniques and their Assessment for Road Transport, a DRIVE project.

Dangerous Substances. Products regarded as potentially dangerous and/or toxic whose classification, use, labelling and marketing are regulated by EC legislation.

Datacentralen. A database host structure which permits access to several EC databases.

Davignon Report. A 1970 document produced for the Heads of Government on political integration recommending that the first steps should be taken in the coordination of foreign policy. It was the basis of European Political Cooperation (EPC).

Declaration. A statement of intention by Member States contained within a EC treaty. Of lesser status than a Protocol, it has limited judicial force.

DECT. Digital European Cordless Telecommunications, a 1991 initiative on communications systems.

Defence Policy. See Security Policy.

Deficiency Payments. Funds provided to producers within the price guarantee system of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) to give them a fair price for their produce and labour when their costs are higher than the market prices for their produce.

Delors I. A 1987 package of Budget proposals put forward by the Commission as a response to EC funding problems, intended to enable the EC to realise the aim of implementing the internal market by the end of 1992.

Delors II. A 1992 Commission budgetary package which sought provision for the extra costs imposed by the Treaty on European Union.

Delors Plan. A 1989 report on a schedule for achieving Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). Discussed at the Maastricht Summit, its conclusions were incorporated into the Treaty on European Union.

DELTA. Developing European Learning through Technological Advance, a 1988 initiative in research and development policy on the application of information technology to infrastructures for advanced learning.

DEMETER. Digital Electronic Mapping of European Territory, an EUREKA project.

Democratic Deficit. The claim that there is a lack of proper democratic and parliamentary supervision and accountability in EC decision-making procedures.

Denaturing. The process of making foodstuffs unsuitable for human consumption.

DEP. European Depository Library, holdings of EC documents intended more for use by the general public.

Dependence Threshold. The level above which the export earnings from exports to the EC of a signatory of the Lomé Convention must be for it to be eligible, given specified adverse economic conditions, for compensation through theSystem of Stabilization of Export Earnings (STABEX).

Deregulation. The ending of unnecessary economic rules or governmental practice through measures intended to remove all restrictions to trade within the EC.

Derogation. The exemption of one or more Member States from the provisions of EC legislation.

DESIRE. An EUREKA project on photolithography technology for sub-micron devices.

Development Aid. The provision of loans and grants from EC institutions and sources to developing countries. The major recipients are the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) States.

DIANE. Development of an Automat Integrated System of Neutronography, an EUREKA project.

DIDAMES. Distributed Industrial Design and Manufacturing of Electronic Subassemblies, a RACE project.

DIME. Development of Integrated Monetary Electronics, an initiative on the application of information technology and telecommunications to monetary electronics for both manufacturers and users.

DIMPE. Distributed Integrated Multimedia Publishing Environment, a RACE project.

DIMUN. Distributed International Manufacturing, a RACE project.

DIRAC. Database for Reliability Calculations, a RACE project.

Direct Elections. Since 1979 held at five-yearly intervals for the European Parliament (EP). Each Member State is free to decide upon its own electoral system.

Direct Information Access Network for Europe (Euronet DIANE). A 1980 information network involving the collaboration of the national postal and telephone authorities.

Directives. EC decisions which are binding upon the EC institutions and the Member States, but as general instructions on the goal to be achieved: the way in which the goal is to be attained is left to the discretion of each Member State.

Directorates-General (DGs). The principal administrative agencies of the Commission, to which they are responsible. They carry out, or ensure that the Member States implement, EC policy, administer allocations from the budget to various policy areas.

Discrimination. The application of restrictive trade practices by one Member State against the goods and companies of other Member States.

DISNET. Domain-Independent Information Services Network, part of the IMPACT initiative.

Divergence Indicator. The threshold point for currencies within the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) at which a currency moves out of alignment and triggers an adjusting mechanism.

DOCDED. A progamme of agricultural infrastructural activities in CADDIA.

DOCDEL. A 1984 electronic document delivery and publishing programme.

DOCED. Documentation Edition, part of CADDIA.

DOEOIS. Design and Operational Evaluation of Distributed Offices Information Servers, an ESPRIT project.

Dominant Firm Abuse. The control of a market for particular products by companies which possess a hegemonic position in that market, and prohibitied by the EC treaties.

DOMINC. A DRIVE project on advanced control strategies and methods for future motorway RTI systems.

DOMIS. Directory Of Materials Data Information Services, an on-line system.

Dooge Committee. Established by the European Council in 1984 and reporting in 1985 on possibilities of institutional reforms within the EC. Some of its recommendations were incorporated into the Single European Act (SEA).

DOSE. An internal database of European Parliament (EP) working documents, replaced by PARDOC.

DOSES. Development of Statistical Expert Systems, a 1989 initiative to develop advanced information technologies in the field of statistics.

DRACO. Driver and Accident Coordinated Observer, a DRIVE project.

Draft European Act. See Genscher-Colombo Plan.

Draft Treaty on European Union. A document prepared by the European Parliament (EP), and completed by 1984, proposing a radical revision of the EC structures which involved a significant increase in the authority of the supranational institutions.

DREAM. A DRIVE project on the monitoring of driver status.

DRIVE. Dedicated Road Infrastructure for Vehicle Safety in Europe, a major initiative begun in 1988 to apply information technology to the improvement of road safety and the reduction of environmental pollution by road traffic.

Dublin Convention on Asylum. A 1990 document outlining common formal arrangements on asylum, and stating that when people have been refused asylum in one Member State, they may not seek asylum in another state.

Dublin Foundation. See European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions

Dumping. The practice of selling produce at greatly reduced, below cost prices, and prohibited within the EC, with the Commission having the authority to allow Member States affected by dumping to take appropriate protective measures.

Return to Alphabetical Index

Glossary - E Entries -- (Top)

EABS. A database of Euro-abstracts.

EAC. European Accident Code, part of the nuclear safety programme of the Joint Research Centre (JRC).

EAGGF. See European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund

EAST. An EUREKA project on the development of advanced software technology in engineering and production units.

EAST. European Assistance for Science and Technology, a 1990 programme for assisting the restructuring of the science and technology potential of Eastern European countries.

EAVE. European Audiovisual Entrepreneurs, a MEDIA project on collaboration in audiovisual production systems.

EBTI. European Binding Tariff Information, part of CADDIA.

ECCE. Exchange and Cooperation between Culture and Enterprise, projects which involve collaboration between business concerns and cultural activities.

ECDIN. Environmental Chemicals Data and Information Network, a database.

ECHO. See European Commission Host Organization

ECHO. Electronic Case-Handling in Offices, a RACE project.

EC-IIP. European Communities-International Investment Partners, a 1991 scheme to encourage investment by EC enterprises in developing countries.

ECISS. European Committee for Iron and Steel Standards, replacing an Iron and Steel Nomenclature and Coordinating Committee in 1986, and working for the replacement of national iron and steel standards by common European standards.

ECLAIR. See European Collaborative Linkage of Agriculture and Industry through Research

ECLAS. European Commissioners' Library Automated System, a bibliographic database of the Commission Library, open to the public.

Eco-Counsellors. People appointed in twelve selected cities to conduct public relations exercises on environment policy during the European Year of the Environment (EYE).

ECOI. Previously ECDOC, a Commission filing system for documentation relating to the agenda of Commission meetings.

ECOIN. European Core Inventory of Chemicals.

Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS). A 1993 initiative to promote awareness and the practice of responsible environmental management in industry.

Economic and Financial Committee. An institution created by the Treaty on European Union as part of the progress towards Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). It wil replace the Monetary Committee at the beginning of the final EMU stage and will monitor the monetary situation in the EC.

Economic and Financial Council of Ministers (ECOFIN). The meetings of the Economic and Finance Ministers of the Member States.

Economic and Financial Policy. The obligation under the treaties of the Member States to cooperate in planning their economic policies, recently and more specifically in the context of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU).

Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). An objective of the EC since 1969. The Treaty on European Union established a timetable for full EMU to be achieved by 1999 at the latest.

Economic and Social Committee (ECOSOC). An advisory institution that must be consulted on a range of issues, with a membership drawn from national interest groups.

Economic Policy Committee. An adjunct of the Council of Ministers, consisting of the national Economic and Finance Ministers.

ECTS. A course credit transfer system, part of the European Community Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students (ERASMUS).

ECU. See European Currency Unit

EDI. Electronic Data Interchange, a linkage between EC chemical industries and their trading partners.

EDIL. Electronic Document Interchange between Libraries, a 1993 project to estblish linkages between major European library networks.

Edinburgh Summit. A 1992 meeting of the European Council which accepted revised terms on which Denmark could accept the Treaty on European Union.

Education Information Network in the European Community (EURYDICE). A networked information service of educational statistics databases established in 1980.

Education Policy. First recognized as a policy competence by the Treaty on European Union. It has largely been limited to stressing the need for closer collaboration and mutual understanding, and has taken the form of recommendations rather than binding legislation.

EFDO. European Film Distribution Office, established under the MEDIA programme.

EFICS. European Forestry Information and Communication System, a 1989 programme on the collection and analysis of data on the forestry sector.

EHLASS. European Home and Leisure Accident Surveillance System, a 1987 programme to improve the quality and safety of products for domestic use, and the level of consumer education.

EIMS. European Innovation Monitoring System, a SPRINT project in innovation and technology transfer.

EIOL. European Infrastructure for Open Learning, a DELTA project.

ELDBUS. An EUREKA project on communications architecture in industrial processes and machines.

Electricity. The subject of programmes since 1974, with objectives on generation sources defined up to 1995

Electronic Data Interchange. See EDI.

ELISE. European Network for the Exchange of Information on Local Employment Initiatives, an information network.

Elysée Treaty. See Treaty of Frienship.

EMEP. A 1986 programme on the monitoring and evaluation of air pollutants.

Empty Chair Crisis. The 1965 dispute between France and the other Member States, primarily over the extension of supranational authority, which was resolved by the Luxembourg Compromise.

EMS. See European Monetary System

EMU. See Economic and Monetary Union

ENCORE. European Network of Catchments organized for Research on Eurosystems, a STEP project.

ENDOC. An on-line directory of environmental data, abandoned in 1989.

Energy Bus. A 1980 initiative for the provision of mobile display vehicles to provide information and advice on energy conservation.

Energy Policy. First elaborated in a programme in 1974. A 1986 revision set priority targets through to 1995 on the levels of consumption, oil imports, nuclear energy, and the development of alternative energy sources. A European Energy Charter was signed in 1991.

Energy Tax. See Carbon Tax.

ENEX. A Commission database on environmental research.

ENGUIDE. A Commission database of bibliographic information on the environment.

Enlargement. The process of expansion of the EC through the admission of new members.

ENLEX. A database of EC environmental legislation and law.

ENOS. European Network of Ocean Stations, a COST project.

E-Numbers. Pan-European code numbers identifying a range of different food additives.

ENREP. A directory of environmental research programmes within the EC.

ENVIREG. A 1990 programme for encouraging regions to utilize resources for economic development more efficiently, within the context of environmental protection.

Environment Policy. Given policy competence in the Single European Act (SEA), but a policy concern since 1972 through a series of five-year action programmes. The main principles are that the polluter must pay the costs of environmental rehabilitation, prevention rather than cure, and the environment taken into account in all EC policy areas. The 1993 programme also emphasized a commitment to sustainable development.

EPIAIM. An AIM project on a knowledge-based system for epidemiology.

EPLOT. Enhanced Performance Lasers for Optical Transmission, a RACE project.

EPOCH. European Programme on Climatology and Natural Hazards, begun in 1990, to build a scientific and technical support for environment policy.

EPOQUE. European Parliament On-Line Query System, an database of debates, reports and questions in the European Parliament (EP), plus EP Library holdings, replacing the earlier PARDOC and PARQ systems.

EPOS. European PTT Open Learning System, a DELTA project.

EPROM. An EUREKA project on the industrial use of integrated circuit non-volatile memory.

Equal Pay. A policy obligation laid down by the treaties, specifically referring to gender equality, but interpreted more broadly.

ERASMUS. See European Community Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students

ERDS. European Reliability Data System, part of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) reactor safety programme.

ERGO. A 1989 programme on coordinating national programmes on help for the long-term unemployed.

ERM. See Exchange Rate Mechanism

ERMES. European Radio Messaging System, a 1992 paging service.

EROS 2000. European River Ocean System, a MAST project.

ERTA Judgment. A 1971 ruling by the Court of Justice that the EC had external jurisdiction wherever they possess internal authority.

ES2. An EUREKA project on the design and production of silicon chips.

ESA. European System of Integrated Economic Accounts, set up to aid the development of an information system in connection with the internal market.

ESM-BASE. A DELTA project on Author Support for Student Modelling in Multimedia Learning Processes.

ESPOIR. European Shoe Programme On Instant Response, a SPRINT project.

ESPRIT. See European Strategic Programme for Research and Development in Information Technology

ESPRIT-IES-DC. The ESPRIT information exchange system on data collections.

ESSENTIAL. European Systems Strategy for the Evolution of New Technology in Advanced Learning, a DELTA project.

ESSI. European Software and Systems Initiative, a 1990 project on quality and productivity in software systems.

ESTI. European Solar Test Installation, part of the Joint Research Centre (JRC).

ETEE. Educational Technologies for European Enterprises, a DELTA project.

ETL. European Test Laboratory, part of the Joint Research Centre (JRC).

ETP. Executive Training Programme, to prepare young executives from EC enterprises attempt to penetrate the Japanese market.

ETSI. European Telecommunications Standards Institute, established in 1987 to harmonize technological specifications and standards.

EUCLIDES. European Standard for Clinical Laboratory Data Exchange between Independent Information systems, an AIM project.

EUCLEX. European Cloud and Radiation Experiment, an EPOCH project.

EUDISED. European documentation and Information Centre for Education.

EURAM. See European Research in Advanced Materials

EURET. European Research for Transport, a 1990 programme on the coordination of technical developments and equipment standardization.

EURATOM. See European Atomic Energy Community

EUREKA. See European Research Coordination Agency.

EURISTOTE. A directory of university theses and studies on European integration.

EURO Abstracts. A monthly journal of the Commission.

EURO-AIM. European Organization for an Audiovisual Independent Market, part of the MEDIA programme, offering support and advice for independent producers.

Eurobarometer. A series of opinion polls on life in the EC carried out by Eurostat and published monthly.

Eurobases. A database distribution service of the Commission.

EUROCARE. European Conservation and Restoration, an EUREKA project on cultural preservation.

EUROCIM. An EUREKA project on flexible automated factory systems and quality control, using electronic cards.

Eurocodes. Standardized specifications for the construction industry.

Eurocorps. An integrated cross-national military unit proposed by some as the nucleus of a future European army.

Eurocrat. A colloquial term for a EC bureaucrat or administrator.

Eurocurrencies. Funds available for use in the international short-term capital markets.

EURODICAUTOM. A terminology database for the transferral of information between European languages.

EURODOCDEL. A 1984 delivery system for EC documents.

EURODYN. An EUREKA project on a high technology gas turbine engine demonstrator.

EUROFAR. European Future Advanced rotorcraft, an EUREKA project.

EUROFARM. A database on farm structures in CADDIA.

EUROFER. European Confederation of Iron and Steel Industries.

EUROFOR. An EUREKA project on automation and computerization of drilling apparatus for the oil industry.

EUROFORM. A 1990 initiative on promoting new qualifications, skills and employment opportunities through cross-nation vocational training.

EUROFRET. European system for International Road Freight Transport Operation, a DRIVE project.

Euro Info Centres. Offices maintained by the EC in major cities where EC documents are available to the public.

EUROKOM. A teleconference and electronic mail facility of details on organziations and enterprises seeking ESPRIT and EUREKA partners.

EUROLEX. European Law Centre, a database of EC legislation, no longer in use.

EUROLOC. Locate in Europe Information Retrieval system, containing details of EC funding agencies.

EUROMAR. An EUREKA project on instrumentation systems for marine science and technology.

EUROMATH. A SCIENCE project on communications software.

EUROMODEL. A MAST project on hydrodynamic modelling.

Euronet Diane. See Direct Information Access Network for Europe

EURONETT. Evaluating User Reaction on New European Transport Technologies, a DRIVE project.

EURONEWS. An electronic information retrieval system on EC statements on research and development policy.

Europe Agreements. Signed by the EC with countries in Eastern Europe after 1991.

European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund (EAGGF/FEOGA). Services the several financial requirements of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). The Guidance Section provides support for agricultural restructuring and modernization. The much larger Guarantee Section operates the common guaranteed price structure.

European Anthem. The words of Schiller's 'Ode to Joy' as set to music in the final movement of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony, and played on ceremonial occasions.

European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). Established in 1957 to promote nuclear research and development for peaceful purposes within uniform safety standards, and to develop wide commercial outlets for nuclear fuel and energy.

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). Established in 1991 to provide financial aid to Eastern European countries that adopted a democratic form of government and had drawn up a strategy for transforming themselves into market economies.

European Bureau of Consumers' Cooperatives. See Consumers' Consultative Committee.

European Business and Innovation Centre Network (EBN). An agency to assist smaller enterprises to benefit from competition policy and the internal market.

European Central Bank (ECB). The body to come into existence between 1997 and 1999 with the third stage of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), with powers to issue the European Currency Unit (ECU) and control monetary policy.

European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP). A service agency established in 1975 to advise and assist in the development of training problems, consisting of national government and interest group representatives.

European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). Established in 1951 to develop a common market in coal and steel. The first European organization to possess the supranational principle, with substantial powers over national governments and enterprises.

European Collaborative Linkage of Agriculture and Industry Through Research (ECLAIR). A 1988 programme of applied research to increase agricultural efficiency within the context of general EC policy concerns.

European Commercial Register. A list of EC enterprises maintained by the Court of Justice.

European Commission Host Organization (ECHO). A central repository and linkage network providing access to several EC databases and information networks.

European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC). Responsible for preparing European technical standards across a range of products and appliances.

European Committee for Standardization (CEN). Responsible for preparing European technical standards across a wide range of products, processes and appliances.

European Communities (EC). The collective body that resulted in 1967 from the merger of the administrative networks of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), and the European Economic Community (EEC). The singular term has also been widely used.

European Communities' Glossary. Compiled by the Terminology Service of the Commission, and containing translations into EC official languages of the essential concepts of EC legislation.

European Community (EC). The often used singular of the European Communities. The Treaty on European Union made it the official new title of the European Economic Community (EEC).

European Community Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students (ERASMUS). A 1987 programme intended to enable students to spend an integral part of their studies at a university in another EC country.

European Community Consumer Cooperatives (EURO-COOP). See Consumers' Consultative Committee.

European Community Visitors' Programme (ECVP). A scheme to enable young leaders from outside Europe to visit the EC to obtain a better understanding of their purpose and operation.

European Confederation of Free Trade Unions in the Community. See European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC).

European Cooperation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research (COST). Established in 1971 by the EC and other European countries as a framework for the preparation and implementation of European projects relating to applied scientific research.

European Correspondent. The junior diplomatic official appointed by each Member State to supervise the daily routine of communication within European Political Cooperation (EPC), answerable to the Political Director.

European Council. Established in 1975 as a forum for the leaders of the Member States, meeting twice yearly (three times until 1986), with the Presidency rotating across the Member States every six months. Legally recognized by the Single European Act (SEA), it is another and the most senior manifestation of the Council of Ministers. The Treaty on European Union made it directly responsible for the European Union intergovernmental pillars of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and Justice and Home Affairs (JHA).

European Currency Unit (ECU). Introduced in 1979 as a central element of the European Monetary system (EMS) to support the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM). Based upon a weighted basket of currencies and supported by the European Monetary Cooperation Fund (EMCF), under the Treaty on European Union, it is scheduled to become the single currency of the EC when Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) is fully implemented.

European Defence Community (EDC). A 1952 plan to establish an integrated defence structure. It was abandoned in 1954.

European Democratic Alliance (RDE). A cross-national party group in the European Parliament (EP) established in 1973.

European Democratic Group (ED). A cross-national party group in the European Parliament (EP) formed in 1973, and dissolved in 1992.

European Development Fund (EDF). Established in 1963 under the Yaoundé Convention, and retained under the subsequent Lomé Convention to provide grants to the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) States for development programmes and projects.

European Documentation Centres (EDCs). Locations for the placement of EC documentation for research and information purposes, usually located in university libraries.

European Drugs Unit. Established in 1991 to aid the control of illegal drug-related activities.

European Economic Area (EEA). An agreement in 1991 between the EC and the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) to form a free trade area in all but agriculture. Previously called the European Economic Space.

European Economic Community (EEC). Established in 1957 to create a common market, and after 1967 often used also to describe the combined EC operation. The Treaty on European Union changed its name to the European Community.

European Economic Interest Grouping. An framework to enable Member States to collaborate more closely on possible joint projects and intiatives.

European Economic Space (EES). See European Economic Area (EEA).

European Energy Charter. Signed by the EC and other countries in 1991 to link Western and Eastern Europe reciprocally in terms of energy supplies and investment aid.

European Environment Agency. Established in 1990, but operating only in 1993, to collect information on environmental questions and problems.

European Flag. Used by the Council of Europe since 1995, and adopted by the EC in 1986, to be flown over EC buildings in Brussels and at national and international meetings where the EC are represented.

European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. Established in 1975 to research and formulate policy proposals on improving the living and working environments of employees.

European Group of Cinema and Audiovisual Financiers. Established to aid audiovisual production under Media Policy.

European Guide to Industrial Trading Regulations and Practice (GINTRAP). A database of EC and national legislation relating to consumer protection and trading standards.

European Inventory of Existing Chemical Substances (EINECS). Established in 1986 to record all chemical products available on the market.

European Investment Bank (EIB). Established in 1957 to finance capital investment that will benefit and aid EC development. Although the Member States provide a subscription capital, it raises most of its funds on the international capital markets. Its major objectives are to assist less developed regions, to modernize the EC economy, and to support projects of value to more than one Member State.

European Investment Fund. A 1992 initiative to aid measures designed to combat the economic depression through funding transnational infrastructural projects.

European Medicines Evaluation Agency. Established in 1994 and responsible for the licensing of all drugs in the EU and for monitoring their effectiveness.

European Monetary Cooperation Fund (EMCF). Established in 1973 as part of the Snake, and absorbed in 1979 into the European Monetary System (EMS) where it is the reserve fund that supports the European Currency Unit (ECU). It consists of 20% of the gold and dollar reserves of the Member States.

European Monetary Institute. Established by the Treaty on European Union, and in operation by 1994, to plan for a further strengthening of economic and monetary collaboration as a prelude to the final stage of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) when it will be replaced by the European Central Bank (ECB).

European Monetary System (EMS). Established in 1979 to secure a zone of monetary stability in Western Europe, with the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) and the European Currency Unit (ECU) as its core elements. In the 1980s it increasingly became seen as inadquate, and hence a first step towards Economic and Monetary Union (EMU).

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Established in 1991 to collective objective and reliable information that would aid measures directed against the production, trafficking and consumption of drugs.

European Parliament (EP). The directly elected (since 1979) assembly of the EC, with limited legislative and juridical competence, though this has been extended in successive treaty amendments. It has the right of scrutiny and supervision of EC executives, and participates in the legislative and budgetary processes.

European Passport. A standardized format and document introduced in 1985.

European People's Party (PPE). A cross-national party group in the European Parliament (EP), formed in 1976, and consisting primarily of representatives of national Christian Democrat parties.

European Police Office (EUROPOL). Established in 1993 to coordinate national police activities, especially in combatting terrorism, fraud and drug trafficking.

European Political Community (EPC). A 1952 proposal for a body that would incorporate the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the proposed European Defence Community (EDC). Its establishment was dependent upon ratification of the EDC, and was abandoned when the EDC was rejected, without ever being thoroughly discussed.

European Political Cooperation (EPC). Established in 1970 as a means of coordinating the foreign policies of the Member States and developing common foreign policy positions through a regular process of consultation. Formally recognized by the Single European Act (SEA), it was replaced, in the Treaty on European Union, by the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP).

European Programme for High Technology Research and Development. See European Research Coordination Agency (EUREKA)

European Radical Alliance. A cross-national party group in the European Parliament (EP) formed in 1994 as a left of centre grouping.

European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). Established in 1975 as one of the structural funds and the central element of regional policy, with the remit to provide partial funding for regional infrastructural developments within the Member States.

European Research and Development Committee (CERD). An independent advisory body established in 1973 to outline research and development objectives and priorities.

European Research Coordination Agency (EUREKA). Responsible for sponsoring projects within a European Programme for High Technology Research and Development, which also incorporates other countries.

European Research in Advanced Materials (EURAM). Established as a research programme in 1978 and integrated in 1989 with Basic Research in Industrial Technologies in Europe (BRITE).

European Right (DR). A cross-national party group in the European Parliament (EP) formed in 1984.

European River Ocean System. See EROS 2000.

European Schools. Educational establishments intended primarily for children of EC employees, especially those working in a Member State other than their own, and teaching a 'European curriculum' in several EC languages.

European Social Charter. See Charter of Fundamental Social Rights.

European Social Fund (ESF). Established in 1960, as one of the structural funds, to provide financial assistance for the development of employment opportunities. Since 1973 it has focused primarily upon retraining, redeployment and the provision of vocational training for young people.

European Strategic Programme for Research and Development in Information Technology (ESPRIT). A major initiative established in 1984 to foster and increase cross-national cooperation in science and technology through the funding of collaborative projects.

European System for the International Clearing of Vacancies and Applications for Employment (SEDOC). A Commission agency for the exchange of information between Member States.

European System of Central Banks. A body created by the Treaty on European Union and scheduled for establishment in 1997 in the final stage of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), with the responsibility of maintaining price stability, a common monetary policy, and the supervision of the foreign reserves and foreign exchange activities of the Member States.

European Trade Marks Office. See Trade Marks.

European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC). A cross-national organization of national trade unions and their federations, established in 1973. It has representation in several EC committees and organizations.

European Training Foundation (ETF). Established in 1990 to develop vocational training and training projects, especially those involving Eastern Europe.

European Union. The body created by the Treaty on European Union, consisting of three pillars, with the European Communities flanked by the two intergovernmental pillars of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and Justice and Home Affairs (JHA). Outside the pillar structure is the intergovernmental agreement on participation in the Social Chapter. A further strand will consist of the European Central Bank (ECB) and European System of Central Banks if Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) is achieved after 1997. The only institution which stands above all the structures is the European Council.

European Unit of Account (EUA). A book-keeping device for recording the relative value of payments into and from EC accounts, and replaced in 1981 by the European currency Unit (ECU).

European University Institute (EUI). Established in 1976 as an institute for postgraduate research and training in history, law and social sciences.

European Venture Capital Association (EVCA). Established in 1973 to promote the management and investment of venture capital and to develop a European capital market.

European Youth Forum. Established as a forum for leaders of the national student and youth organizations, with the objective of achieving a better mutual understanding across the Member States in higher education.

Europe Day. Established in 1986 to honour Robert Schuman. It is 9 May, the day he proposed the Schuman Plan.

EUROPENSION. A scheme to facilitate the transnational management of European pension funds.

Europe of the Regions. A phrase referring to the desire for regional and local authorities to have a greater input into the EC. It was institutionalized with the establishment of the Committee of the Regions.

EUROPOL. See European Police Office.

EUROPOLIS. An EUREKA project on intelligent control systems for the management of urban traffic flows.

EUROS. European Register of Ships, established in 1989.

Eurosceptics. A phrase describing those people who oppose attempts to increase the degree of political integration.

Eurostat. The abbreviated form of the Statistical Office of the European Communities, responsible for the collection and publication of statistics across all EC activities.

Eurotech Alert. European Information Service for the Results of National Research, collating and analysing publicsector research in industry and technology.

Eurotech Capital. An initiative to stimulate private capital funding for cross-national projects in high technology.

EUROTECNET. European Technical Network, a series of projects on vocational training and information technology, established in 1985.

EUROTOPP. European Transport Planning Process, a DRIVE project.

EUROTRA. A machine translation system established in 1982 for training in lexicography and terminology in the official languages of the EC.

EUROTRAC. An EUREKA project on transport and environmental transformation.

EUROTRAP. European Transport Planning System, a DRIVE project.

EUROVAC. A multilingual thesaurus of standardized terms developed by the Office for Official Publications of the European Communities (OOPEC).

EUROVIS. European vision System Economic, an EUREKA project.

EUR Reports. Specialist and technical reports on EC research activities.

EURYCLEC. A network of national information centres specializing in information technology.

EURYDICE. See Education Information Network in the European Community.

EUs Euronorms. European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) standards on the quality, dimensions, tolerances and testing methods of steel.

EVA. Evaluation Process for Road Transport Informatics, a DRIVE project.

Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM). A core component of the European Monetary System (EMS), and the central element by which the EMS seeks to stabilize and limit currency fluctuations.

Exclusive Agreements. Purchasing, market-sharing or distribution agreements between countries which are prohibited by EC competition policy.

Exemption. The process by which a company or companies can be exempted from competition policy rules on restrictive agreements on the grounds that they provide substantial public benefits.

EXLIB. A 1993 initiative on the development of user reqirement specifications and standards to allow visually handicapped people comparable access to EC information sources.

EXMAN. Experimental Manipulation of Forest Ecosystems in Europe, a STEP project.

Expenditure. Budget resources expected to fund the several EC policies as well as EC running and administrative costs. The largest element is on agriculture.

Exploitation of Indigeneous Energy Potential in Certain Less-Favoured Regions. See VALOREN.

Extensification. Reduction in the level of intensive farming, whereby the consequent decline in agricultural incomes is compensated by money savings from a reduced use of fertilizers and pesticides.

External Relations. The several formal bilateral and multilateral trading agreements of the EC with other countries, and the attempt to develop, outside the formal institutions, a common set of foreign policies.

EXVOC. Expert System Contribution to Vocational Training, a DELTA project.

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Glossary - F Entries -- (Top)

FA. A forecasting database of the European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund (EAGGF) within CADDIA.

FACIT. Fast Automatic Conversion with Integrated Tools, a project on a working prototype for automatic error detection in library cataloguing systems.

Factortane Judgment. A 1990 ruling (R v. Secretary of State for Transport, ex parte Factortane Ltd) of the Court of Justice confirming that national legislation in conflict with EC law must be suspended.

FADN. Farm Accounting Data Network, a database based upon a sample of farm holdings representing a cross-section of EC agriculture.

FAE Numbers. Code numbers for antioxidants, colouring matter and preservatives.

FAMOS. An EUREKA project on flexible automated assembly systems.

FAOR. Functional Analysis of Office Requirements, an ESPRIT project.

FAR. Fisheries and Aquaculture Research, a 1988 programme on fisheries management.

FARO. Fuel Melting and Release Oven, part of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) nuclear reactor safety programme.

FAST. See Forecasting and Assessment in the Field of Science and Technology

FASTCAT. An EUREKA project on high-speed multilingual computer assisted translation.

FAUDIT. The auditing system of the European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund (EAGGF), within CADDIA.

FEIP. Front-End for Echographic Image Processing, an AIM project.

FEOGA. See European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund

FEOPAY. A CADDIA project on reviewing orientation payments within the Guidance Section of the European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund (EAGGF).

FIDESY. Fire Detection System based on Intelligent Systems of Infrared and Visible Images, an EUREKA project.

Fifth Directive. An abortive 1972 proposal to establish obligatory worker representation on the supervisory boards of large companies.

FINA. The financial accounts domain on CRONOS.

Financial Policy. See Economic and Financial Policy.

FIORE. Funding and Investment Objectives for Road Transport Informatics in Europe, a DRIVE project.

FIS. Fast Information System, a computer infrastructure in CADDIA.

FISH. The fisheries domain on CRONOS.

Fisheries. See Common Fisheries Policy (CFP).

FLAIR. See Food-Linked Agricultural Industrial Research

FLEET. Freight and Logistics Efforts for European Traffic, a DRIVE project.

Fontainebleau Summit. A 1984 meeting of the European Council which resolved several issues that had blocked EC progress for several years, and endorsed new initiatives for developments in integration.

Food-Linked Agricultural Industrial Research (FLAIR). A 1989 programme to improve the competitiveness of the European food industry, raise levels of food safety and hygiene, and strengthen the scientific and technical basis of the food industry.

Foodstuffs. Regulated by legislation on manufacturing, labelling and marketing intended to improve consumer health and safety and strengthen consumer policy.

FORCE. A 1991 programme intended to provide more investment , innovation and better training management for vocational training.

Forecasting and Assessment in the Field of Science and Technology (FAST). First established in 1978 as a programme for exploring and encouraging collaboration in scientific and technological resarch and development.

Foreign Policy. See Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP); European Political Cooperation (EPC).

FOREST. Forestry Sectoral Research and Technology, a 1990 action programme.

Fouchet Plan. A 1961 proposal for an intergovernmental 'Union of States', rejected in 1962.

Founding Treaties. The original treaty documents that established the EC.

Fourchette. The range of price levels between which the Member States must fix their agricultural prices.

FOWM. Fibre Optic Well Monitoring System, an EUREKA project.

Frankovich Judgment. A 1992 ruling (Frankovich et v. Italy) of the Court of Justice establishing the principle that individuals could appeal, on the grounds of infringement of their rights, against the non-implementation of EC law by Member States.

Freedom of Movement. A fundmental objective of the EC, relating to peope, goods, services and capital, and reconfirmed in the Treaty on European Union.

FRIC. The external trade domain on CRONOS.

FRIDA. Framework for Integrated Dynamic Analysis of Travel and Tariffs, a DRIVE project.

FUNCODE. A RACE project on the intercompatibility between high quality videophones and high definition television.

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Glossary - G Entries -- (Top)

GALENO 2000. An EUREKA project on non-invasive diagnostic equipment for medical purposes.

GAM '92. Established in 1992 to promote cooperation between customs officials to combat illegal trade, especially in armaments, pornography and strategic goods.

GAMES. General Architecture for Medical Expert Systems, an AIM project.

GBOP. The balance of payments domain on CRONOS.

General Affairs Council. The regular meetings of the national Foreign Ministers, the most important sessions of the Council of Ministers.

Generalized System of Preferences (GSP). Preferential treatment by the EC to some exports from countries not otherwise associated with them in a formal trading agreement.

Genscher-Colombo Plan. A 1980 initiative for political union presented to the European Council in the form of a Draft European Act and draft declaration on economic integration. No action was taken on it.

GENST. Standard Goods Nomenclature for Transport Statistics, merged in 1988 into Combined Nomenclature(CN)

GIDS. Generic Intelligent Driver Support System, a DRIVE project.

GINTRAP. See European Guide to Industrial Trading Regulations and Practice

GIPE. Generation of Interactive Programming Environments, an ESPRIT project.

Golden Triangle. The EC territory bounded by Paris, the Ruhr and Milan.

GREEN. General research in the Environment for Eastern European Nations, a 1993 initiative to raise Eastern European knowledge of scientific and technical resources for reducing energy and industrial pollution.

Green Currencies. Artificial currency levels introduced into the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) in order to preserve the common price structure after the erosion of the international system of fixed exchange rates. They were not phased out until 1993.

Green Labelling. Environmentally friendly labels (eco-labels) on products which have passed certain specified tests.

Greens. A cross-national party group in the European Parliament (EP), formed in 1989.

GRIP. Greenland Icecore Project, an EPOCH project.

Group for the European Unitarian Left (GUE). a cross-national party group in the European Parliament (EP), formed in 1989 after the split in the Communist and Allies group.

Guarantee Thresholds. Upper limits imposed in 1986 upon automatic financial support for agricultural products, and intended to limit the open-ended nature of production subsidies in the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP).

Guide Prices. Prices offered to farmers for beef and veal under the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), being similar to target prices, and prices fixed for fish in the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP).

Gymnich Meetings. Informal specialist ministerial meetings held in conjunction with sessions of the European Council.

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Glossary - H Entries -- (Top)

Hague Summit. A 1969 meeting of the national leaders which opened the way for enlargement, set down guidelines for the development of common policies and closer political cooperation, and called for Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) by 1980.

HANDYNET. An information exchange network on problems of disabled people.

HANDYSEARCH. A directory of research on technical aids for disabled people.

HANDYTEC. An information system on technical aids for disabled people.

HANDYWHO. An index of organizations involved in technical aids for disabled people.

HARD. Hardware Resources for Development, a CADDIA project.

HARD ECU. A British proposal in 1990 for an alternative to a single currency, with national currencies existing alongside a strong European Currency Unit (ECU) .

Harmonization. The process of coordination of national policies and standards but in a more limited manner than that implied by approximation.

Health and Safety. Relates to the provision of satisfactory conditions for workers at their place of employment.

HEALTHBENCH. Health Information and Decision Support Workbench, an AIM project.

HELIOS. Handicapped People in the European Community Living Independently in an Open Society, a 1988 programme to promote the socioeconomic integration of disabled people.

HERCULE. An EUREKA project on the application of robotics in the construction industry.

HERODE. An ESPRIT project on multimedia documents in a standardized office document architecture.

HFR. High Flux Reactor, part of the Joint Research Centre (JRC).

HFSP. Human Frontier Science Programme, a project on higher order brain functions.

High Authority. The supranational executive of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), amalgamated with the Commission in 1967.

HIPACS. Hospital Picture Archiving and Communication system, an AIM project.

HOME. Highly Optimized Microscope Environment, an AIM project.

HORIZON. A 1990 initiative to aid disabled and disadvantaged groups gain access to the labour market through vocational training in new technologies.

HOSCOM. Hospital Comparisons, an AIM project on medical and financial data.

HTDS. Host Target Development System, an ESPRIT project.

HUFIT. Human Factor Laboratories in Information Technologies, an ESPRIT project.

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Glossary - I Entries -- (Top)

IBASS. Intelligent Business Applications Support System, an ESPRIT project.

IBC. Integrated Broadband Communication, a RACE project.

ICARUS. Inter-Urban Control and Roads Utilization Simulation, a DRIVE project.

ICG. The Eurostatus General Statistics domain on CRONOS.

ICONE. Comparative Index of National and European Standards.

ICSIC. Integrated Communications System for Intensive Care, an AIM project.

IDA. Interchange of Data between Administrations, a 1993 programme to develop support for data exchanges between EC administrations.

IDES. Interactive Data Entry System, a CADDIA programme for the transmission of agricultural data between the Commission and the Member States.

IDRIS. Intelligent Drive for Shop Floor Systems, an ESPRIT project.

IDS. Information dissemination System, part of Inter-Institutional Integrated Services Information system (INSIS).

IES-DC. Information Exchange system - Data Collections, a directory and reference service on information technology.

IFC. The internal database of Integrated Information Systems (SII) on EC financial instruments.

IFOP. A guidance financial instrument for fisheries established in 1994.

IHS. Integrated Home systems, an EUREKA project on communications systems for domestic use.

IKAROS. Intelligence and Knowledge Aided Recognition of Speech, an ESPRIT project.

ILE. A 1989 initiative on women's local employment.

IMAURO. Integrated Model for the Analysis of Urban Route Optimization, a DRIVE project.

Immigration Policy. Handled in a more structured manner only with the establishment of TREVI in 1986. The Treaty on European Union did not make it a EC competence, leaving it as part of Justice and Home Affairs (JHA).

IMPACT. Information Market Policy Actions, a 1989 initiative for an internal information services market for EC suppliers of information services.

IMPACT. Implementation Aspects concerning Planning and Legislation, a DRIVE project.

IMPROFEED. An EUREKA project on improving the feed value of raw materials.

INCA. Integrated Network Architecture for Office Communications, an ESPRIT project.

INDE. the industry and energy domain on CRONOS.

INDIS. Interbourse Data Information Service, linking stock exchanges.

Industrial Policy. A relatively uncoordinated policy area, but a general industrial policy was proposed in a 1990 Commission discussion paper. Collectively, EC action in a number of policy sectors can be said to constitute an industrial policy.

INFORM. Information Management and Decision Support in High Dependency Environments, an AIM project.

Information for Women. See Women's Information Service

Information Technology. A major EC concern and the theme of several cross-national collaborative programmes.

INFOSAFE. Information System fo Roaduser Safety and Traffic Performance, a DRIVE project.

Inland Waterways. Subject to EC legislation since 1982 in terms of types and specifications of commercial craft, with mutual recognition on navigability and control since 1976.

INSIS. See Inter-Institutional Integrated Services Information System

Institutions. The central decision-making bodies of the EC, with a special status in treaties and in practice.

Integrated Information Systems (SII). The core element of the EC's own internal database system.

Integrated Mediterranean Programmes (IMPs). A series of aid packages for socioeconomic improvement projects in Mediterranean regions.

Integrated Operations. Aid packages for socioeconomic development and renewal in specific and geographically small areas suffering from severe multiple depression.

INTERACT. An information system for coordinating local measures for the socioeconomic integration of disabled and elderly people.

Intergovernmental Conferences. The forum used to explore in detail proposed organizational and other infrastructural initiatives.

Inter-Institutional Integrated Services Information System (INSIS). An instrument and electronic mail system for developing networks of services for the exchange of information.

INTERMAPS. Interactive Multimedia Access Publishing Services, a DELTA project.

Internal Market. A common market decided upon in 1985 and implemented by the end of 1992.

INTERPRISE. An initiative for encouraging transnational partnerships between industries and services.

INTERREG. A 1990 initiative to aid internal and external border regions overcome problems of development caused by their comparative remoteness o#fron EC and national centres.

Inter-University Cooperation Programmes (ICPs). Partnership agreements between education institutes within the European Community Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students (ERASMUS).

Intervention Agency. The body within the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) which purchases produces when market prices fall below the agreed intervention price.

Intervention Price. The guaranteed fixed price for farm commodities under the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP).

INVAID. Integration of Computer vision Techniques for Automatic Incident Detection, a DRIVE project.

Investment Securities Directive. Introduced in 1993, and permitting a company authorized in one Member States to offer its services throughout the EC without requiring further authorization, as well as providing standards for solvency and the protection of investors.

Investiture. The process of conferring authority on the Commission to act as a governmental body for the EC.

Inward Investment. The establishment within the EC of operations of non-EC enterprises, but rules set a minimum EC-made content of the manufactured product, measured by ex-factory prices.

IQ. Intelligent Quattro, an EUREKA project on an intelligent remote control system for hydraulically operated vehicles.

IRENE. Integrated Modelling of Renewable Natural Resources, a FAST project.

IRHIS. Intelligent Adaptive Information Retrieval system on Hospital Information System Front End, an AIM project.

IRIS. A Commission initiative on promoting awareness of the value of information technologies among women.

IRIS. Integrated Road Safety Information and Navigation System, a DRIVE project.

ISDN. Integrated Services Digital Network, a 1989 initiative to improve the international competitiveness of the telecommunications industries through the establishment of compatible and harmonized services.

ISMAP. Integrated System for the Management of Agricultural Production, an EUREKA project.

ISTI. The indices of production, turnover, orders and salaries in CRONOS.

ITDNS. Integrated Tow Operating Digital Network Service, an IMPACT project.

ITER. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, part of an international research programme in conjunction with the International Nuclear Energy Agency.

ITHACA. In-Depth Accident Data Collection and Analysis, a DRIVE project.

ITSEC. Information Technical Security Evaluation Criteria, a 1992 initiative to increase consumer awareness of and confidence in information technology and its products.

IVICO. Integrated Video Codec, a RACE project.

IVIS. Integrated Vacuum Instrumentation System, an EUREKA project.

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Glossary - J Entries -- (Top)

JANUS. An information exchange system on industrial health and safety.

JANUS. Joint Academic Network Using Satellite for European Distance Education and Training, a DELTA project.

JESSI. Joint European Summicron Silicon, an EUREKA project.

JET. See Joint European Torus.

JETDLAG. Joint European Development of Tunable Diode Laser Absoprtion Spectometry for the Measurement of Atmospheric Gases, an EUREKA project.

Joint European Torus (JET). An institution and programme to develop nuclear fusion as a safer, cleaner, more efficient and economic energy source than nuclear fission.

Joint Interpreting and Conference Service (JICS). A language service established in 1985 to aid the training of conference interpreters.

Joint Research Centre (JRC). A grouping of nine institutions in four different countries working on nuclear research and development.

JOULE. Joint Opportunities for Unconventional or Long-Term Energy Supply, a 1989 initiative on the development of alternative energy sources.

JUKE-BOX. A 1993 initiative on the application of telematics technology to public access to audio archives.

Jumbo Council. A joint meeting of the Economic and Financial Council of Ministers (ECOFIN) and the Social Affairs Ministers in 1982 which reviewed the economic and social situation in the EC.

JUSLETTER. A database of records and weekly summaries of decisions taken by EC institutions.

Justice and Home Affairs (JHA). An intergovernmental pillar of the European Union, formalizing TREVI and giving recognition to well-established copperaqtive procedures.

Justiciable. A matter under dispute which can be submitted to the Court of Justice or the Court of First Instance for resolution.

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Glossary - K Entries -- (Top)

KALEIDOSCOPE. A 1991 initiative to promote contemporary artistic creativity, the training of young artists, and a greater awareness of Europe's cultural heritage.

KAROLUS. A 1992 action plan for an exchange of national officials engaged in the implementation of EC legislation on the construction of the internal market.

KAVAS. Knowledge Acquisition Visualization and Assessment Study, an AIM project.

KISS. Knowledge-Based Interactive Signal Monitoring System, an AIM project.

KIWI KBS. An EUREKA project on user friednly systems for information bases.

KONVER. A 1993 initiative on the reconomic reconversion of regions heavily dependent upon defence industries and military bases, absorbing the PERIFRA programme.

KRITIC. Knowledge Representation and Inference Techniques in Industrial Control, an ESPRIT project.

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Glossary - L Entries -- (Top)

LAB. The Legal Advisory Boards, consulted by the Commission on legal issues arising from information markates, and part of IMPACT.

LAT. Learning by Advanced Telecommunications, a DELTA project.

LDTF. Large Dynamic Test Facility, part of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) nuclear reactor safety programme.

LEADER. A 1990 initiative on the preservation of rural socioeconomic structures through the use of information technology to stimulate tourism.

LEAST. Learning Systems Standardization, a DELTA project.

LEDA. Local Employment Development Action, a programme to combat regional unemployment.

Left Unity (CG). A corss-national party group in the European Parliament (EP), formed in 1989 after a division in the Communist and Allies group.

Legal Advisory Boards. See LAB.

Legal Personality. The right of a body or organization under international law to take autonomous action rather than relying upon national governments to act on its behalf. It is provided to the EC by the Treaty of Rome, enabling the EC to enter into legally binding agreements and making them subject to constitutional legal procedings.

Legal Service. A Commission agency which prepares and scrutinizes EC legislation, and which ensures that all legislation has the same precise legal meaning in all EC languages.

LEMMA. An AIM project on methods and architectures for logic engineering in medicine.

LENO 2000. An EUREKA project on automatic non-invasive medical diagnostic equipment.

LEONARDO. A 1994 proposal for an action programme in vocational training policy to absorb all existing EC activities in this area.

LET'S GO EAST. Let European Technicians and Scientists Go East, a 1990 initiative to encourage EC scientists and technicians to work in Eastern Europe to assist the economic restructuring of the countries.

Levies. See Budget; Common Agricultural Policy (CAP).

Liberal, Democratic and Reformist Group. A cross-national party group in the European Parliament (EP).

Liberalization. The process of establishing the internal market through the elimination of unnecessary obstacles and restraints to trade.

LIDAR. Light Detection and Range, an environmental research programme.

LIFE. A 1992 financial instrument to provide aid for environmental activities.

LINAC. Linear Accelerator, part of the Joint Research Centre (JRC).

LINGUA. A programme on the promotion and development of the teaching of EC languages in schools.

LION. Local Integrated Optical Network, an EUREKA project.

LOBI. Loop Blowdown Investigation, part of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) nuclear safety programme.

Locate in Europe Information Retrieval System. See EUROLOC.

Lomé Convention. An agreement first signed by the EC with the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) States in 1975 on reciprocal trade arrangements and the provision of developmental aid.

LORINE. Limited Range Imagery Networks Elements, a RACE project.

Luxembourg Compromise. The resolution of the empty chair crisis in 1966, which allowed Member States to veto proposals which they feel will adversly affect their national interests.

Luxembourg Declaration. A joint statement by the EC and the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) in 1984 on economic cooperation. It was superseded by the European Economic Area (EEA).

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Glossary - M Entries -- (Top)

Maastricht Summit. A 1991 meeting of the European Council which considered the reports of two intergovernmental conferences on political and economic union, and agreed upon the Treaty on European Union.

Maastricht Treaty. See Treaty on European Union.

MacDougall Report. A 1977 report on the role of public finance in Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), recommending that public expenditure would need to rise to between 5% and 7% of gross domestic product (GDP).

MACNET. A 1987 initiative on the development of anetwork of consultative medical centres.

MACS. Maintenance Assistance Capability Software, an ESPRIT project.

MADRAS. Modular Approach to Definition of RACE Subscriber Premises Network, a RACE project.

Majority Voting. Simple majority voting in the Council of Ministers, confined to minor issues, usually of a procedural nature.

Management Committees. Agencies within the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), one for each product, which advise the Commission on a uniform application of EC legislation and on fixing levels of export refunds and import levies.

Manifest Crisis. A declaration of what amounts to a state of emergency in the coal or steel industry which, if applied, gives the Commission wide authoritarian powers over Member States and industrial enterprises.

Mansholt Plan. The 1968 document that was the origin of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP).

MAPS. Memory-Archives-Programmes-TV, a MEDIA project.

MAP-TV. Methods of Assessing the Radiological Impact of Accidents, a programme on the consequences of nuclear accidents.

MARIN. Marine Industry Application of Broadband Communications, a RACE project.

Marine Science and Technology. See MAST.

Market-Sharing Agreements. Arrangements between enterprises which are prohibited by EC competition policy.

Marlia Reports. Progress reports given by the President of the Council of Ministers on the status of outstanding business and proposals.

MAROPT. Marine Optical Recording System, an EUREKA project.

MARSIS. Marine Remote Sensing Information System for Regional European Seas, an EUREKA project.

MASQUES. Medical Application Software Quality Enhancement by Standards, an AIM project.

MAST. Marine Science and Technology, a 1989 initiative to improve knowledge, management and protection of the marine environment, and the development of new techniques for the exploitation of its resources.

MATIC. Multi-Strategy Authoring Toolkit for Intelligent Courseware, a DELTA project.

MATTHAEUS. A 1991 exchange programme for customs officials working on the operation of the internal market.

MATTHAEUS-TAX. A 1993 programme of further vocational training for national officials responsible for indirect taxation .

MAX. Metropolitan Area Communication System, an ESPRIT project.

MCAs. See Monetary Compensation Amounts.

MCACE. Measurement Characterization and Control of Ambulatory Care in Europe, an AIM project.

Measures for Encouraging the Development of the Audiovisual Production Industry. See MEDIA.

MEDALUS. MediterraneanDesertification and Land Use Impacts, an EPOCH project.

MED-CAMPUS. A project for cooperation between higher education institutes around the Mediterranean.

MEDIA. Measues for Encouraging the Development of the Audiovisual Production Industry, a 1987 initiative to encourage and sustain EC film and television production.

Media Policy. An area of cultural policy concerned with the setting of technical standarded for satellite and cable broadcasting, coordination between national broadcasting authorities, especailly on programme content, and support for EC film and television production.

MEDICA. Multimedial Medical Diagnostic Assistant, an AIM project.

Mediterranean Policy. The collection of trade agreements signed by the EC with states that border the Mediterranean, and various educational, economic and scientific initiatives that focus upon the Mediterranean area.

MEDSPA. Mediterranean Special Programme of Action, a 1991 initiative on the protection and improvement of the environment in the Mediterranean region.

Members of the European Parliament (MEPs). Representatives in the European Parliament (EP), elected for fixed five-year terms, and sitting in the EP as members of cross-national party groups, not by national delegations or party affiliations.

MENTOR. An EUREKA project on an expert system for dealing with major plant failure and security control.

MERCATOR. An information and documentation exchange network on minority languages.

MERCHANT. Methods in Electronic Retail Cash Handling, a RACE project.

Merger Policy. The ability of the Commission to consider and approve in advance any proposed cross-national mergers between enterprises with more than a specified level of turnover.

Merger Treaty. The 1965 document, in effect in 1967, which merged the executive authorities of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), and the European Economic Community (EEC).

MERMAID. Metrication and Resource Modelling Aid, an ESPRIT project.

MERMAID. Marine Environment Remote-Controlled Measuring and Integrated Detection, an EUREKA project.

MERMAIDS. Mediterranean Eddy Resolving Modelling and Interdisc Studies, a MAST project.

Messina Conference. A 1955 meetings of the Six which decided to establish both a common market and an atomic energy community.

METEOR. An ESPRIT project on an integrated formal approach to software development.

METKIT. Metrics Education Toolkit, an ESPRIT project.

MGQ. Maximum Guarantee Quality, a statistic used in tobacco production within the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP).

MIDAS. Management Information Dissemination Administrative System ,a European Parliament (EP) database, operated in conjunction with SYSDOC.

Milan Summit. A 1985 meeting of the European Council which agreed on a more comprehensive overhaul of the EC, and set up the intergovernmental conference that led to the Single European Act (SEA).

MIMI. Medical Workstations for Intelligent Interactive Acquisition and Analysis of Digital Medical Images, an AIM project.

MINE. Microbial Information Network Europe, part of the Biotechnology Action Programme (BAP).

Mines Safety and Health Commission. An advisory body supervising conditions of health and safety in all mining and quarrying enterprises, inherited from the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC).

MINSTREL. An ESPRIT project on new information models for office filing retrieval systems.

MINT. Managing the Integration of New Technology, a SPRINT project.

MIOCA. Monolithic Integrated Optics for Customer Access Applications, a RACE project.

MIRAGE. Migration of Radioisotopes in the Geosphere, a project on the handling and disposal of radioactive waste.

MIRIAM. Model Scheme for Information on Rural Development Initiatives and Agree Markets, a 1990 initiative on information flows in rural areas. relating to the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP).

MIS. Miltilingual Information System, an ESPRITproject.

MISEP. Mutual Information System on Employment Policies a mechanism for collecting and disseminating information on national employment policies.

MITHRA. An EUREKA projecton mobile robots in telesurveillance.

MITI. Multilingual Intelligence Interface, an IMPACT project.

MMOS. Multi-Modal Organ Modeling System, an AIM project.

MOBIDICK. Multivariable On-Line Bilingual Dictionary Kit, an EUREKA project.

MODEM. Modelling of Emission and Consumption in Urban Areas, a DRIVE project.

MODESTI. Mould Design and Manufacturing Optimization, a BRITE project.

Monetary Committee. An advisory body of senior officials from the national Finance Ministries and Central Banks, given by the Treaty on European Union the responsibility of supervising the coordination of national monetary policies in the first stage of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), but due to be replaced in the final stage of EMU by an Economic and Financial Committee.

Monetary Compensation Amounts (MCAs). Compensatory amounts paid to farmers under the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) to cover the difference between the common price structure and actual prices determined by existing exchange rates, dismantled by the end of 1992.

Monetary Policy Committee. An adjunct of the Council of Ministers as a regular meeting place of the national Economic and Finance Ministers.

MONICA. A DRIVE project on incident congestion detection and traffic monitoring.

MONITOR. Strategic Analysis, Forecasting and Evaluation in Research and Technology, amalgamating in 1988 the earlier Forecasting and Assessment in the Field of Science and Technology (FAST) with Strategic Analysis in the Field of Science and Technology (SAST) and Support Programme for the Evaluation of Activities in the Field of Research (SPEAR), to develop new directions, priorities and initiatives.

Montant de Soutien. The level of financial support offered to farmers for a specific commodity.

Montant Forfaitaire. The amount by which the levy on imports from one Member State to another was reduced to give EC producers and suppliers an advantage over those from outside the EC.

MOSES. An EUREKA project on multimedia database services.

MULTOS. Multimedia Filing System, an ESPRIT project.

MURIM. Multi-Dimensional Reconstruction and Imaging in Medicine, an AIM project.

MUSIP. Multisensor Image Processor, an ESPRIT project.

MUST. An ESPRIT project on a next generation database management system.

Mutual Recognition. The principle in competition policy that where a product is legally manufactured and marketed in one Member State, it may be freely offered for sale in other Member States, irrespective of whether it complies with their own national legislation in that area.

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Glossary - N Entries -- (Top)

NAT-LAB. Natural Learning Acquisition, a DELTA project.

Negative Assent. The enhanced authority and the veto power on legislation given to the European Parliament (EP) by the Treaty on European Union.

Negative Clearance. An exemption to competition policy rules granted by the Commission which recognizes that an agreement between companies does not eliminate or distort competition.

Neofunctionalism. The process of economic and political cooperation and integration in limited and specified areas of activity.

NEPTUNE. An initiative on the utilization of technology in education.

NET. See Next European Torus.

NETT. See Network for Environmental Technology Transfer

Network for Environmental Technology Transfer (NETT). An initiative on developing and applying environmentally friendly technologies through improved collaboration between industries and scientists.

Network of Employment Coordinators (NEC). A 1989 initiative on acquiring a better overview of employment problems through coordinating the work of national employment information agencies.

NEVIS. Neural Vehicle Information System, a VALUE project.

New Community Instrument (NCI). A financial supplement to the structural funds providing development aid for small and medium-sized companies.

New Opportunities for Women (NOW). A 1990 initiative providing support for programmes and projects that will improve employment and training opportunities for women.

Next European Torus (NET). A planned follow-up to the Joint European Torus (JET) in nuclear fusion research.

NIMEXE. The nomenclature of goods for the external trade statistics of the EC and of trade between the Member States, absorbed in 1988 into the Combined Nomenclature(CN)

Nine. The membership of the EC after the first enlargement of 1973 through to 1981.

NITREX. Nitrogen Saturation Experiments, a STEP project.

NLPAD. Natural Language Processing of Patient discharge, an AIM project.

Noise. Controled by several EC directives, with maximum noise limits for a range of commercial and domestic machinery and equipment, and on decibel levels in the workplace,

Non-Compulsory Expenditure. The element of the EC budget which relates to policies not directly provided for by EC treaties.

Norm Price. The price guaranteed to tobacco producers under the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP).

NORSPA. North Sea Special Programme of Action, a 1991 initiative on improving the quality of the North Sea environment.

Nouvelles Frontiéres. A 1986 ruling by the Court of Justice which ruled that air transport was not exempt from EC competition policy.

NOW. See New Opportunities for Women

Nyborg Agreements. A series of decisions in 1987 which eased the practice of intra-marginal interventions within the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM).

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Glossary - O Entries -- (Top)

OAR. Open Architecture for Reasoning, an AIM project.

OASIS. Open And Secure Information Systems, an EUREKA project.

OCTs. See Overseas Countries and Territories.

ODAS. Ocean Data Acquisition System, a COST project.

ODIN. Origin-Destination Information versus Traffic Control, a DRIVE project.

Office for Official Publications of the European Communities (OOPEC). A service agency of the Commission responsible for the publication and dissemination of EC reports, pamphlets and other publications.

Official Journal (OJ). Contains the details of all EC legislation as well as draft legislation, information, notices, and advertisements for publicworks and supplies contracts.

OLE. Organizational Learning in Enterprises, a DELTA project.

OLEW. Open Learning Experimental Workshop, a DELTA project.

ONP. Open Network Provision, a 1989 initiative on harmonizing national telecommunications regulations.

Operation PHARE. The Poland and Hungary Assistance for Economic Restructuring programme, extended in 1990 to other Eastern European states.

OPET. See Organizations for the Promotion of Energy Technology

Opinions. Statements by EC supranational institutions expressing a preference for a course of action, but which are not binding upon the Member States. Alternatively, decisions by the Court of Justice on international agreements to which the EC is party.

OPMODD. An EUREKA project on operational modelling of regional seas and coastal waters.

Opt-Out. A decision that a Member State has been given a statutory right not to take part in a specific activity pursued by the EC.

Organ. A lower level EC body, less central and with less authority than an institution.

Organizations for the Promotion of Energy Technology (OPET). A network of organizations active in the promotion of technology, established in conjunction with theTHERMIE programme.

Original Principle. A system whereby tax is collected on goods during the course of production, to be introduced across the EC in 1996.

Ortoli Facility. See New Community Instrument (NCI)

OSCAR. Optical Switching Systems, Components and Architecture Research, a RACE project.

OSIRIS. Optimal Standards for Successful Integration of Multimedia On-Line Services, a DELTA project.

OSIS. Open Shops for Information Systems, a COST project.

OSSAD. Office Support System Analysis and Design, an ESPRIT project.

Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs). Territories associated with Member States whose products were given special access to European Economic Community (EEC) markets by the Treaty of Rome. Since 1963 they have been absorbed into the broader arrangements of the Yaoundé and Lomé Conventions.

Overseas Development Fund. Set up in 1958 in an appendix to the Treaty of Rome to provide aid for the Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs), to be financed by contributions from the Member States. It was superseded in 1963 by the Yaoundé Convention.

Own Resources. The possession by the EC of financial resources which belong to them as of right, consisting of customs duties, levies on agricultural imports, and a proportion of the value-added tax (VAT) levied by the Member States.

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Glossary - P Entries -- (Top)

PACE. A 1989 initiative to educate consumers in a more efficient use of electricity and more energy- efficient appliances.

PACE. Programme of Advanced Continuing Education, a planned initiative on education exchanges between the EC and the USA.

Padoa-Schioppa Report. A 1987 document evaluating the effect of the entry into the EC of Portugal and Spain, and of the commitment to the internal market upon the EC's economic system.

PALABRE. An ESPRIT project on the applicability of artificial intelligence to directory services.

PAMELA. Pricing and Monitoring Electronically of Automobiles, a DRIVE project.

PAMINA. A 1992 project on cross-national collaboration between adjacent border regions on the environment, tourism and transport.

PAN (N5). An EUREKA project on equipment for high-pressure submarine pipelines.

PANDORA. Prototyping a Navigation Database of Road Network Attributes, a DRIVE project.

PANGLOSS. Parallel Architecture for Networking Gateways Linking Open Systems Interconnections, an ESPRIT project.

PAP. Prices and Agricultural Products, a term used within CADDIA.

PARA. A 1989 programme of financial assistance for weak agricultural holdings.

PARADI. An EUREKA project on an automatic production management system using artifical intelligence.

Paragraph. A sub-element of an Article in a EC treaty.

PARCMAN. Parking Management, Control and Information Systems, a DRIVE project.

PARDOC. An internal database of the European Parliament (EP), replaced by DOSE and, later, EPOQUE.

PARIS. A DRIVE project on the economic assessment of road transport and traffic information systems.

Part. A main sub-division of a EC treaty, possibly sub-divided in turn into Titles.

Party Groups. The basic organizational feature of the European Parliament (EP), cross-national groupings of representatives of national political parties. The EP set down criteria in 1979 for what constitutes a party group.

Patents. Subject to EC competition policy, with the Commission having the right to decide whether a patent violates the policy.

PEGASE. A library catalogue database of the European Parliament (EP).

People's Europe. See Citizenship; Committee for a People's Europe.

PERIFRA. A 1991 initiative to provide assistance for less developed regions affected economically by the ending of the Cold War and the trade concessions granted to Eastern European countries.

PERLA. Performance Calibration and Training Laboratory, a fissile materials programme of the Joint Research Centre (JRC).

Permanent Inventory of Biotechnical Research Projects in the European Community. See BIOREP.

Permanent Representation. The delegations maintained by each Member State in Brussels, consisting of diplomats and administrative officials from national ministries.

Petitions. The right of citizens to petition the European Parliament (EP) on any matter which falls within the areas of authority possessed by the EC and EU, and which affects them directly.

PETRA. A 1988 initiative on the vocational training of young people and their preparation for adult and working life, designed to supplement national training programmes.

PETRA. A Joint Research Centre (JRC) programme on developing equipment for the treatment of radioactive waste.

PHARE. See Operation PHARE.

Pharmaceuticals. Subject to a series of directives on their testing, patenting, production, marketing and labelling.

PHOEBUS. An EUREKA project on the generation of solar power.

Pillar. The basic structure of the European Union which consists of three pillars: the European Communities, the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), and Justice and Home Affairs (JHA).

PIMS. Project on Integrated Management Systems, an ESPRIT project.

PIP. Priority Information Programme, a 1989 Commission initiative to outline and publicize its priorities in its annual programmes.

PODA. Piloting of Office Document Architecture, an ESPRIT project.

POLIS. A DRIVE project on a cooperative network of European cities based on advanced transport telematics.

Political Committee. Established by the Treaty on Political Union, and composed of the Political Directors, to monitor the areas covered by the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and to advise the European Council on foreign and security policy.

Political Cooperation. See Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP); European Political Cooperation (EPC).

Political Directors. The senior national diplomats responsible for the coordination of foreign policy initiatives in European Political Cooperation (EPC), and reconstituted by the Treaty on European Union as a Political Committee responsible for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP).

Policy. The collectivity of proposals, iitiatives and legislation intended to achieve EC aims in specific fields of activity.

PRAG. The agricultural and fisheries domain on CRONOS.

Preamble. The opening sentences of a EC treaty, which outlines the aims and main themes of the treaty.

PRECISE. Prospects for Extra-Mural and Clinical Information Systems Environment, an AIM project.

PRECISE. A DELTA project on communications and information strategies.

PREDICT. Pollution Reduction by Information and Control Techniques, a DRIVE project.

Preferential Trade Agreements. Signed by the EC with other countries, and intended to lead, within a reasonable and specified period of time, to a customs union.

Price-Fixing Agreements. Arrangements between enterprises which are banned by EC competition policy.

PRIME. A COST project on analyzing and modelling the ionosphere.

PRISMA. A 1990 initiative to aid enterprises to prepare for the internal market.

Privileges and Immunities. Rights of those who are members of, or who work for, EC institutions, and of the EC themselves, defined by the Merger Treaty.

Production Quotas. Limitation imposed by the Commission on national and enterprise coal and steel production.

Product Liability. Controlled by a 1988 directive imposing strong conditions on manufacturers for defects in their products which cause damage to purchasers and consumers.

Programme for the Vocational Training of Young People and their Preparation for Adult and Working Life. See PETRA.

PROMAN. A Commission database for the management of EC funded contracts for energy projects.

PROMETHEUS. An EUREKA project on an economically efficient and environmentally friendly road traffic system.

PROSPECTRA. Programme Development by Specification and Transformation, an ESPRIT project.

Protocol. An additional element of a EC treaty, providing details on the implementation of treaty requirements, or those which are too lengthy for inclusion in the treaty proper.

Provisions. The objectives and contents of a EC treaty.

Public Procurement. The subject of EC directives since 1990 which require all public contracts above a certain cost threshold to be open to competitive tender throughout the EC.

PULSAR. Parking Urban Loading Unloading Standards and Rules, a DRIVE project.

PUSSYCATS. A DRIVE project on pedestrian safety at traffic lights and road crossings.

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Glossary - Q Entries -- (Top)

QAMS. Quality Assurance of Medical Standards, an AIM project.

Qualified Majority Voting. One way in which the Council of Ministers arrives at a decision on issues and proposals before it. The vote is qualified in two ways: first , because it requires a majority well in excess of 50%, and second because it is based upon a weighted voting system, with each Member State possessing an indivisible bloc vote corresponding roughly to its size.

Quantitative Restrictions. See Quota Restrictions.

Quick Reaction Consultation Centre. A body established in 1991 as a mechanism to enable the Member States to give a coordinated response to sudden and large-scale immigration pressures.

QUIRT. An AIM project on real-time imaging and quality control in radiation therapy.

Quota Restrictions. Restraints upon trade which limit the volume of exports into a country, abolished within the EC by 1968, and removed in many of the international agreements to which the EC is party.

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Glossary - R Entries -- (Top)

RACE. See Research and Development in Advanced Communications Technologies in Europe.

Rainbow Group. A cross-national party group in the European Parliament (EP), formed in 1984.

RAISE. Rigorous Approaches to Industrial Software Engineering, an ESPRIT project.

RARE. See Associated Networks for European Research

Ratification. The process of the formal constitutional approval of a EC treaty, or changes to a treaty, by the Member States.

RECAP. Recycling of Automobile Plastics, an EUREKA project.

RECHAR. A 1989 initiative on the reconversion and redevelopment of coal mining areas.

RECITE. Regions and Cities in Europe, a 1991 initiative on the development of cohesion through cooperative networks of joint economic projects undertaken by regions and cities.

Recommendations. Views and preferences expressed by EC institutions on desired actions, but not binding on the Member States.

REDO. An ESPRIT project on the maintenance, reliability, re-useability and documentation of software systems.

Reference Price. The average price calculated from the market prices for food and vegetables in each Member State, used to determine whether a levy should be imposed upon agricultural imports into the EC.

Referrals. Preliminary rulings by the Court of Justice on cases brought to it from national court systems.

REGEN. A 1990 initiative on establishing a satisfactory energy distribution network in the less developed regions of the EC.

Regional Policy. A major policy concern, concentrating on reducing the differences in economic strength between the different regions of the EC, concentrating on aid for less developed regions and restructuring aid for those in economic decline.

REGIS. A system of loans and grants for overseas regions of the EC, established in 1990.

Regulations. The most rigorous form of legislation, detailed instructions applicable throughout the EC and directly binding upon the Member States.

REITOX. An information network on drugs and drug addiction, estblished in 1992.

REM. Radioactive Environmental Monitoring, a Joint Research Centre (JRC) database.

REMUS. Reference Models for Useability Specifications, a RACE project.

RENAVAL. A 1989 initiative of financial aid for the economic reconversion of areas heavily dependent upon ship-building.

REQUEST. Reliability and Quality of European Software, an ESPRIT project.

RES. A FAST project on the development of renewable natural resources.

Research and Development in Advanced Communications Technologies in Europe (RACE). A major programme, begun in 1987, on the development and diversification of the EC's research and technology base in telecommunications.

Research and Development Policy. A major EC policy concern, and the subject of several major research initiatives and programmes intended to facilitate the economic application of new technologies.

RESEAU. A database and monitoring network in CADDIA on environmental, agricultural and urban development.

RESIDER. A 1988 initiative on the economic reconversion and redevelopment of areas heavily dependent upon the steel industry.

Resolutions. Statements of principle adopted by the Council of Ministers on the recommendation of the Commission, but not legally binding upon the Member States.

Restitutions. Export subsidies or refunds paid to EC exporters to cover the difference between what they must pay to Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) producers and the lower prices at which they must sell on the world markets.

RETAS. Retail Technology Plans, a 1994 pilot project.

RETEX. A 1991 initiative on the economic reconversion of areas heavily dependent upon the textile and clothing industry.

Revenue. The income of the EC, coming from several sources, and regarded as the EC's own resources.

REWARD. Recycling of Waste Research and Development, a 1990 programme on the application of economically viable technologies.

RICHE. A VALUE project on a European information and communications network for hospitals.

RIMES. Road Information and Management Eco-System, a DRIVE project.

RIPE. RACE Integrity Primitive Evaluation, a RACE project.

Ritter List. A twice-yearly listing of proposals awaiting a decision by the EC.

Road Transport. Subject to several directives on rules of employment, training and work periods for drivers of heavy commercial vehicles, on road safety, and on cross-border freight.

ROSA. RACE Open Services Architecture, a RACE project.

ROSAMES. Road Safety Management Expert System, a DRIVE project.

ROSE. Research Open Systems Europe, an ESPRIT project.

RUBRIC. Rule Based Approach to Information systems Development, an ESPRIT project.

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Glossary - S Entries -- (Top)

SAD. See Single Administrative Document.

SAFE. Standard Authoring Facility Environment, a DELTA project.

Safety. See Health and Safety.

Sail for Europe Association. A group of international crews of EC nationals which compete in round-the-world races and other sailing events, sponsored by the Commission.

SATDOC. Satellite Mediated Controlled Experiment for Continuing Education and Monitoring Doctors, a DELTA project.

SAVE. Special Action Programme for Vigorous Energy Efficiency, a 1991 initiative on a more economic utilization of energy resources other than electricity.

SCENT. System Customs Enforcement Network, a structure for the exchange of urgent information between national authorities on fraudulent evasion of customs and agricultural regulations, as well as on drug trafficking.

Schengen Agreement. A proposed agreement by several Member States to create a border-free zone among themselves.

Schiller Plan. A 1970 proposal for Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) which argued that economic coordination ought to be adopted as the necessary first step, before any monetary cooperation was attempted.

Schuman Plan. A 1950 proposal for the pooling of coal and steel resources, and the origin of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC).

SCIENCE. A 1988 initiative on international cooperation between research scientists, with an emphasis also upon training and mobility, replacing the 1983 Science Stimulation Action Programme.

Science and Technology for Environmental Protection (STEP). A 1989 initiative for research in a specified set of environmental areas.

Science and Technology for Regional Innovation and Development in Europe (STRIDE). A 1990 initiative to strengthen the participation of poorer regions of the EC in leading-edge research and development, also providing funds for them to launch programmes more appropriate for their own special needs and problems.

Scientific and Technical Research Committee (CREST). An advisory group to the Commission, consulted on proposals for, and the funding of, scientific research programmes.

SCOPE. Software Certification of Programme Spelling in Europe, an ESPRIT project.

SCP. Single Cell Protein, a COST project.

SCP-EGG. Standard Communications Protocol for Computerized Electrocardiography, an AIM project.

SCRIPT. Support for Creative Independent Production Talent, an initiative within the MEDIA programme.

SEA. See Single European Act

SEAMOS. Sea Environmental Monitoring System, an EUREKA project.

SECA/SECB/SECS. the national accounts domain on CRONOS.

SEC Documents. Produced by the Secretariat-General, and consisting of internal reports, discussion papers and draft resolutions.

SECFO. Systems Engineering and Consensus Formation Office, a DRIVE project.

Secretariat-General. The senior central bureaucratic agency of the Commission, and the major administrative link between the various EC agencies.

Section. A sub-division of a Chapter in a EC treaty, the lowest division above an Article.

Sectoral Integration. The process of integrating national economies in stages, by taking one economic sector at a time, and held to typify the strategy of the 1950s.

Security Policy. Formally listed as a EC objective in the Single European Act (SEA), and institutionalized in the Treaty on European Union, but not yet established in practice.

SEDOC. See European system for the International clearing of Vacancies and Applications for Employment

SEDOS. Software Environment for the Design of Open Distributed Systems, an ESPRIT project.

SERV. Service Activities and Technological change, a FAST project.

SESAME. Standardization in europe on Semantical Aspects in Medicine, an AIM project.

Set-Aside Scheme. Introduced into the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) in 1988, a system of financial compensation for farmers for leaving a set proportion of their land uncultivated for a specified period of time.

Seveso Directives. EC legislation on accident risks in several industrial activities and on the supervision and control of the transportation of hazardous waste.

SFINX. Software Factory Integration and Experimentation, an ESPRIT project.

SHIFT. An information system within CADDIA for veterinary services on animal health inspection at EC external border posts.

Shipping. Regulated under a common shipping policy adopted in 1986 which placed shipping under EC competition policy and placed strict limits upon discrimination.

SIDR. The energy and industry domain on CRONOS.

SIENA. A database of external trade statistics in Eurostat.

SII. See Integrated Information Systems.

SIMBIOSE. Scientific Improvement of Biofilters and Sensors, an EUREKA project.

Simmenthal SpA v. Commission. A Court of Justice ruling asserting that national governments must apply EC law in full and that where this is not done, individuals have the right to appeal to the Court.

SIMPER. Structured Information Management Processing and Effective Retrieval, an ESPRIT project.

Single Administrative Document (SAD). A 1988 document replacing the several import/export forms and transit documents previously necessary for drivers of commercial vehicles to cross internal EC borders.

Single Currency. See Economic and Monetary Union (EMU).

Single European Act (SEA). A 1987 amendment to the founding treaties dealing primarily with the internal market, European Political Cooperation (EPC), and institutional reform of the EC.

Single Market. See Internal Market.

SIP. Sectoral Import Programme, technical assistance to smaller enterprises within Operation PHARE.

SIPS (also SOCI). The population and social conditions domain on CRONOS.

SIRENE. An energy database compiled by Eurostat.

SIRIUS. Sociopolitical Implications of Road Transport Information Implementation and Use Strategies, a DRIVE project.

Six. The oroginal six members of the EC.

SLAPS. Spatial Variability of Land Surface Processes, an EPOCH project.

SLOM. A series of provisions introduced in 1989 on changes in the milk quota system within the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP).

Sluicegate Price. Similar to the threshold price, but applying to eggs, pigmeat and poultry. Imports to the EC of these products are liable to a levy to raise them to the level of the sluicegate price.

Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprise (SME) Task force. A Commission agency providing advice and assistance to smaller companies on EC competition policy and the internal market.

SMART. A DRIVE project on electronic cards for travel and transport.

SMILER. Short-Wave Microwave Links, a DRIVE project.

Snake. A 1972 agreement to established a European system of exchange rates.


Social Action Programme. A 1974 initiative whereby the Member States pledged to introduce some 40 prority measures to reduce unemployment and improve living and working conditions.

Social Chapter. See Charter of Fundamental Social Rights.

Social Charter. See Charter of Fundamental Social Rights.

Social Dumping. the process whereby manufacturers shift the location of their production from high- to low-wage areas.

Socialist Group. A cross-national party group in the European Parliament (EP), formed in 1973.

Social Policy. A major policy area that relates specifically to employment matters and to employer-worker relations.

SOCRATES. system of Cellular Radio for Traffic Efficiency and Safety, a DRIVE project.

Solemn Declaration on European Union. A statement issued by the European Council in 1983, reviewing the extent of the implementation of the potential of EC institutions and possibilities for their further coordination, and reiterating a wish for further progress towards political union.

Solvency Ratio Directive. 1989 legislation setting down legally binding requirements for banks in terms of their risk assets.

SOMIW. Secure Open Multimedia Integrated Workstation, an ESPRIT project.

Sovereignty. A contentious issue, with developments indicating that for different reasons neither the EC nor the Member States are sovereign bodies in the full political or legal sense.

Spaak Report. A document prepared by a working party established by the 1955 Messina Conference, which produced a blueprint for the European Economic Community (EEC).

SPEAR. support Programme for a European Assessment of Research, a component of MONITOR.

SPEC. Support Programme for Employment Creation, a 1990 initiative of financial and technical support for innovative projects in job creation.

Special Committee on Agriculture. A specialist group within the Committee of Permanent Representatives (COREPER).

Special Relations Agreements. Trade agreements signed by the EC with European countries which at the time of signing are not potential candidates for EC membership.

Special Telecommunication Action for Regional Development (STAR). A 1986 initiative to aid the economic and industrial development of poorer regions by enabling to participate in telecommunications technologies and services.

SPECS. Specification Environment for Communications Software, a RACE project.

SPECTRUM. Strategies for Preventing Road Traffic Congestion, a DRIVE project.

SPEL. A sectoral production and income model for agriculture within CADDIA.

SPES. Stimulation Plan for Economic Science, a 1989 intitiative to develop cooperation and mobility among economists.

Spierenburg Report. A document reviewing the institutional structure of the EC and recommending its streamlining.

Spillover. The process of sectoral integration, with effects of integrated sectors spiling over to affect those not yet integrated.

SPIN. Speech Interface at Office Workstations, an ESPRIT project.

SPMMS. software Production and Maintenance Management System, an ESPRIT project.

SPNET. Science Parks Network, a 1992 initiative to encourage cooperation among science parks.

SPOT. Signal Processing for Optical and Cordless Transmission, a RACE project.

SPRINT. See Strategic Programme for Innovation and Technology Transfer

STABEX. See System of Stabilization of Export Earnings

Stabilizers. Introduced into the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) in 1988, fixed ceilings on the production and processing guarantees for several agricultural products, backed by co-responsibility levies, above which the level of price support is reduced.

STABINE. An EUREKA project on a power generation system.

STADIUM. Statistical data Interchange Universal Monitor, part of CADDIA.

Stagiare. A short-term trainee, usually a recent graduate, attached to a Commission office.

STAMMS. Standards for In-Vehicle Man Machine Interface, a DRIVE project.

Standardization. See European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC); European Committee for Standardization (CEN).

Standing Committee on Employment. An advisory body established in 1974 to supplement the work of the Economic and Social Committee.

STANORM. Statistical Normalization, a programme for standairdization of statistical information in CADDIA.

STAR. See Special Telecommunication Action for Regional Development

START-UP. Supplies for Technological Advanced Requirements Through Users Protocols, a DELTA project.

STATEL. A CADDIA programme on the interchange of electronic data between Eurostat and the national statistical offices.

Statistical Office of the European Communities. See Eurostat.

STD. Science and Technology for Development, a 1983 aid programme for developing countries.

STEP. See Science and Technology for Environmental Protection

STRADA. Standardization of Traffic Data Transmission and Management. a DRIVE project.

Strategic Analysis, Forecasting and Evaluation in Matters of Research and Technology. See MONITOR.

Strategic Programme for Innovation and Technology Transfer (SPRINT). A 1986 programme on the development of infrastructures for smaller enterprises that are not large enough to sustain a research and development staff of their own.

STRIDE. See Science and Technology for Regional Innovation and Development in Europe

STRINGS. Statistical Report Integrated Generation Service, a CADDIA system for the production and dissemination of statistical information.

Structural Funds. The major expenditure funds of the EC: European Regional Development Fund (ERDF); European Social Fund (ESF), and the Guidance section of the European Agricultural guidance and Guarantee Fund (EAGGF).

Stuttgart Declaration. See Solemn Declaration on European Union

Subsidiarity. The principles that the EC can act only when they possess the legal powers to do so, that the EC should act only when an objective can be better achieved at the supranational level, and that the means employed by the EC should be proportional to the desired objective.

Subsidies. Generally not permitted, whether to private or public enterprises, if the effect is likely to be contrary to competition policy.

Summit Meetings. Gatherings of the Heads of Government of the Member States, since 1974 institutionalized as the European Council.

SUPERNODE. An ESPRIT project on systems and programmes for parallel computers.

SUPER SUBSEA. An EUREKA project on standardized modular subsea production systems.

Support for Creative Independent Production Talent. See SCRIPT.

Supranationalism. The principle that the nature of the structures and decisions of the EC are superior to the national states, and different from intergovernmental cooperation.

Sustainability. A form of economic growth that is self-maintaining without exhausting natural resources.

SYMBIOSIS. An information network on a People's Europe, established in 1990.

SYSDEM. A 1990 project on the analysis and dissemination of information on employment.

SYSDOC. A documentation system of the European Parliament (EP), encompassing EPOQUE, MIDAS and PEGASE.

SYSMIN. See System for Safeguarding and Developing Mineral Production

System for Safeguarding and Developing Mineral Production (SYSMIN). A programme of financial assistance to Lomé Convention countries to maintain mining production and installations during marked downturns on the world economic market which affect their export earnings.

System of Compensation. See COMPEX.

System of Stabilization of Export Earnings (STABEX). A programme of financial assistance to Lomé Convention countries reliant upon one or a few basic commodities where their export earnings to the EC have been severely and adversely affected by world market conditions.

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Glossary - T Entries -- (Top)

TABAN. Table Analysis, a Eurostat programme for reviewing the collection and distribution of statistical tables.

TACIS. Technical Assistance to the Commonwealth of Independent States, a 1991 aid programme for the successor states of the ex-USSR.

TAC. See Total Allowable Catch

TANKER. An EUREKA project on an ecological and economic European tanker.

TAP. Telecommunications Action Programme, established in 1984.

TARDIS. Traffic and Roads drive Integrated systems, a DRIVE project.

Target Price. The basic price set annually for each commodity within the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), against which the price support to farmers is calculated.

TARIC. Integrated Community Tariff, established within CADDIA in 1988.

Tariffs. Removed for intra-EC trade by 1968.

Task Force for Information Technology and Telecommunications. The body wihich originall defined the overall programme and strategy of the ESPRIT initiative.

Taxation. Generally accepted as a policy field that belongs to the Member States, except where direct taxation policy is against competition policy, and in indirect taxation where the EC have an interest in harmonization.

TBB. Transnational Broadband Backbone, a 1985 telecommunications programme.

TECDOC. An IMPACT project on portable information devices for technical documentation.

Technology Framework Programmes. The basic organizational principle of research and development policy.

TECNET. A database of information technology projects relating to vocational training.

TED. Tenders Electronic Daily, an information service on open public procurement contracts awarded by national and local authorities, operated by the Office for the Official Publications of the European Communities (OOPEC).

Telecommunications. the subject of several initiatives in both media policy and information technology.

TELEMAN. A 1989 research and training programme on remote handling in hazardous nuclear environments.

TELEMATIQUE. A regional development initiative of 1991 to promote advanced telecommunications networks and services in economically disadvantaged regions.

TEMPUS. See Trans-European Mobility Scheme for University Students

Ten. The membership of the EC from 1981 to 1986.

TERA. An EUREKA project on high performance and high capacity disk storage systems.

TET. Technology Employment and Labour, a FAST project.

THERMIE. A 1990 programme on the development and promotion of new and alternative energy sources.

Threshold Price. The minimum guaranteed price fixed for cereals, milk products and sugar within the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP).

TIDE. Technology for the Socio-Economic Integration of the Disabled and Elderly People, a 1991 programme on social integration and technology.

Tindemans Report. A 1976 report commissioned by the European Council on future integration strategy for the EC.

Title. A sub-division of a Part in a EC treaty. Titles can be divided into Chapters.

TMIE. Tutoring and Monitoring Intelligent System, a DELTA project.

TOSKA. Tools and Methods for a Sophisticated Knowledge-Based Content Free Authoring Facility, a DELTA project.

Total Allowable Catch (TAC). The quota set annually for each species of fish declared to be threatened by overfishing under the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). Each Member State is allocated its own quota within each overall quota.

Tourism. A potential EC policy area, required by the Treaty on European Union to be incorporated into the Treaty by 1996 at the latest.

Trade Marks. Subject to a policy of harmonization since 1980.

Transatlantic Declaration. A 1990 statement by the EC and USA on greater collaboration in education.

Trans-European Mobility Scheme for University Students (TEMPUS). A 1990 programme to provide financial assistance for university education and student exchanges in the new democracies of Eastern Europe.

Trans-European Networks. A concept introduced by the Treaty on European Union, committing the EC to networks in energy, telecommunications and transport, to improve cohesion.

Transparency. The need for more opennness in and public access to the working of EC institutions.

Transport Policy. The subject of several legislative decisions since 1983, but while regulations apply to several different transport sectors, there is as yet no common transport policy.

TRANSPOTEL. An EUREKA project on an integrated data and communications processing system for physical distribution centres.

Treaty of Accession. The document signed by the EC and an applicant state upon the completion of the negotiations on entry to the EC.

Treaty of Friendship. The 1963 pact on greater political cooperation signed by France and the Federal Republic of Germany.

Treaty of Luxembourg. A 1970 amendment to the Treaty of Rome, introducing the concept of EC own resources.

Treaty of Paris. The 1951 document establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC).

Treaty of Rome. The 1957 document establishing the European Economic Community, and the most important of the founding treaties.

Treaty on European Union. The 1992 document which radically restructured the EC, formally established the European Union, and committed the EC to Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) by 1999 at the latest.

TREVI. A forum created in 1975 for intergovernmental cooperation on matters relating to internal security, organized crime, terrorism, and drug trafficking, and forming the basis of Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) estblished by the Treaty on European Union.

Trigger Threshold. The extent to which the value of average export earnings to the EC must have fallen over a four-year period for a developing country to benefit from the System of Stabilization of Export Earnings (STABEX).

TROIKA. The tendency of the country occupying the Presidency of the Council of Ministers to work with its immediate predecessor and scheduled successor to achieve consistency in EC policy direction.

TUNICS. Tunnel Integrated Control system, a DRIVE project.

TWE. Technology, Work and Environment, a FAST project.

Twelve. The membership of the EC after 1986.

Return to Alphabetical Index

Glossary - U Entries -- (Top)

UETP. University Enterprise Training Partnerships, a core component of the Community Programme for Education and Training in Technology.

Union of Industrial and Employers' Confederations of Europe (UNICE). A cross-national federation of employers' associations.

URBAN. A 1994 initiative to promote innovative ideas and actions across EC cities.

UROP. Universal Roadside Processor, a DRIVE project.

Return to Alphabetical Index

Glossary - V Entries -- (Top)

VALIDATA. Validated Data Bank and Dissemination for Prescribers, an AIM project.

VALOREN. A 1986 programme to stimulate the economic development of poorer regions through a more efficient use of indigeneous energy resources.

VALUE. A 1988 programme to disseminate the results of EC research and development policy and to develop a common integrated computer communications infrastructure.

VAMOS. A DRIVE project on specifications for dynamic traffic messages.

Van Gend en Loos. A 1963 ruling (Van Gend en Loos v. Nederlandse Administratie der Belastingen) by the Court of Justice that EC law was a new legal order, directly applicable in the Member States.

Variable Geometry. The possibility of common policies being developed and implemented at different rates by the Member States, depending upon their degree of commitment to each policy.

Vedel Report. A 1972 document reporting on possible problems associated with any increase in the powers of the European Parliament (EP).

Very Short-Term Financing Facility. A 45 day credit facility provided by the European Monetary Cooperation Fund (EMCF) to Member States requiring support for their currencies.

Veto. The right of veto possessed by each Member States in the Council of Ministers.

VIC. Vehicle Inter-Communication, a DRIVE project.

Vignette. A freight licence for cross-national road freight, to be introduced by 1998.

Visa Policy. Established by the Treaty on European Union, applicable to nationals from third countries, with a common visa format to be adopted before 1996.

VISIMAR. Visualization and Simulation of Marine environmental Processes, an EUREKA project.

Voluntary Export Restraints (VERs). Bilateral agreement between the EC and other countries where the latter voluntarily agree to limit the volume of their exports to the EC of particular products.

Vredeling Initiative. A 1980 Commission attempt to establish a company statute.

Return to Alphabetical Index

Glossary - W Entries -- (Top)

WASP. Waddell Sea Project, a MAST project.

Water. Subject to several directives on the quality and protection of water and pollution control.

Werner Report. A 1970 blueprint for Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) by 1980, later abandoned.

Western European Union (WEU). A Western European defence alliance, incorporated into the European Union by the Treaty on European Union.

White Paper. A 1985 Commission document outlining the steps required to complete the internal market.

Wine Lake. A surplus of wine generated by the price support system of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP).

Withdrawal Price. The intervention price within the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP).

Women's Employment and Equality Office. An advisory agency attached to the Commission.

Women's Information Service. A liaison body between the EC and women's organizations.

Glossary - Y Entries -- (Top)

Yaoundé Convention. A non-reciprocal trade agreement signed in 1963 by the EC with the Associated African States and Madagascar (AASM), and replaced in 1975 by the Lomé Convention.

Youth Exchange Scheme for Europe (YES). A 1987 youth exchange initiative for young people not engaged in higher education

Original content: Professor Derek Urwin, Department of Politics and International Relations - University of Aberdeen
Original web editing by Fraser Lovie, with maintenance attributed to
(This version substantially revised and reformatted for the FAST website from the Aberdeen original; reprint permission note dated 28 October 1997)

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Updated 21 May 2001