The Pentecostal Movement in Finland
Sari Hokkanen, Spring 2007 (US)
A FAST-FIN-1 (TRENAK1) Finnish Institutions Research Paper
FAST Area Studies Program
Department of Translation Studies, University of Tampere
The Pentecostal Movement, or Pentecostalism, is a Christian denomination
that was born in the early 1900s in the United States. During the 20th
century it spread to almost every corner of the world, now being the
second-largest Christian denomination after Roman Catholicism and the
largest Protestant denomination in the world. Pentecostalism arrived in
Finland fairly soon after its birth and has been a part of the country's
religious landscape ever since. However, since the majority of Finns are
members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, Pentecostalism like
other free churches in Finland, and despite its ever growing number of
members has kept its status of a marginal denomination.
This paper studies the Pentecostal Movement in Finland, with a brief
look to its origins abroad as well as its arrival in Finland. What is
the Pentecostal Movement like in Finland today? What are its doctrines,
and how is it organized? And, due to the important status of the
Evangelical Lutheran Church in Finnish Christianity, what are the
differences between Pentecostalism and Lutheranism; what kind of
relationship exists between Pentecostalism and the Evangelical Lutheran
Church of Finland? Many points that are related to this subject have
already been covered in The Evangelical Free Church of
Finland by Jenni Tuikkala , which describes another Finnish free
church and its relation to the Lutheran Church. Therefore overlapping
matters have not been repeated here.
What is Pentecostalism?
Pentecostalism gets its name from the experience Jesus' disciples had on
the day of Pentecost. As described in standard references,
Pentecost was originally a Jewish feast, the closing festival of the
harvest (Catholic). In the Bible, the book of the Acts of the Apostles
describes in Chapter 2 how on that day the disciples were filled with
the Holy Spirit1 and how they "began to
speak with other tongues as the Spirit gave them utterance" (Acts 2:4).
This baptism of the Holy Spirit, along with its charismatic
manifestations, has always been a part of Christianity, even though it had
not been a part of the Church's2 doctrine
until the emergence of Pentecostalism (Ahonen 9).
According to the Pentecostal faith, the charismatic manifestations of
the Holy Spirit in a Christian, or the charismata, are spiritual gifts
from God that can be both "ordinary," such as the gift of encouraging
other believers, and extraordinary, such as speaking in tongues. The
Apostle Paul listed these charismata in 1 Corinthians Chapter 12. Among
them are, for instance, "the word of knowledge," which is considered to be
supernatural knowledge of e.g. a person's life, that the Christian
receiving the word of knowledge could not know otherwise; "gifts of
healings" and "working of miracles" (1 Cor. 12:8-10).
Today the adherents of Pentecostalism are counted in hundreds of
millions; the estimations vary between 350 and 500 million. Pentecostalism
is the largest Protestant denomination and the second-largest Christian
denomination after Roman Catholicism (Kärkkäinen 302-303). In the United
States there are several Pentecostal denominations, but since many of them
do not have the word "Pentecostal" in their names, it might be difficult
for the uninitiated to connect them to the Pentecostal Movement3. The largest Pentecostal denomination in
the U.S. is Assemblies of God, which also has affiliates in several
other countries. In the U.S. alone, Assemblies of God has some 2.5 million
adherents (Kärkkäinen 304-305).
The Origins of Pentecostalism and Its First Appearance in
The origins of Pentecostalism can be found in Topeka, Kansas. It was
there, in the fall of 1900, that Reverend Charles F. Parham gave the
students at Bethel College, his Bible school, an assignment to
study the book of Acts, in which the above-mentioned story of the "first"
Pentecost is recorded. The result was that on January 1, 1901, one of the
students was filled with the Holy Spirit and started to speak in tongues.
After that many others in the school had the same experience, including
Parham himself (Ahonen 15-18, Yamane, Brown).
Parham started to hold revival meetings around the country, and in
Texas he met an African-American preacher, William J. Seymour. Seymour was
a student in Parham's Bible school in Houston, and he became the central
figure of what came to be known as the Azusa Street revival (Ahonen 21,
Brown). Azusa Street is located in Los Angeles, California, and it was the
place where Seymour started to preach of the baptism of the Spirit in 1906
(Ahonen 21, Heino 84). In every meeting for several years people were
filled with the Holy Spirit and started to speak in tongues (Ahonen 22).
The Azusa Street revival made the Pentecostal Movement known not only in
the U.S. but also worldwide, as pastors and missionary workers from all
over the world came to hear Seymour and took the new experience home with
them (Ahonen 23, Brown).
The Pentecostal Movement arrived in Finland around 1908 in the person
of Thomas Ball Barratt, a Norwegian pastor with British roots. Some
Finnish Christians had heard about the Pentecostal Movement and invited
Rev. Barratt to Finland to hold meetings and thus to help bring the
phenomenon to Finland. Norway was the first Nordic country to have
Pentecostal activity, and Rev. Barratt was among the leading persons in
the movement in Norway. The first Finnish Pentecostal congregation was
established in Helsinki in 1915 (Ahonen 32, Heino 84). As of 2003, there
were 257 Pentecostal congregations in Finland, with slightly fewer than
50,000 members. But when counting all the family members within
Pentecostalism, the number of adherents rises to some 100,0004 (Kärkkäinen 312).
The Organization of Finnish Pentecostalism
From the first Pentecostal congregation in Helsinki until the beginning of
the 21st century, every Pentecostal congregation in every Finnish town has
been an independent organization. Until 2003, Pentecostalism was not a
registered religious community according to Finnish law (Freedom). It has
always been important to Finnish Pentecostalism — as it has to many
other free churches around the globe to maintain the independence
and the autonomy of the local congregation (Kärkkäinen 287-288). However,
in 2003, as described below, the situation changed, and the movement
started to organize on a national level.
In formal meetings, the local congregation elects elders to lead the
congregation. The number of the elders varies and depends on the size of
the congregation. The role of the elders in a Pentecostal congregation is
similar to that in The Evangelical Free Church of Finland;
they make decisions concerning finances and take care of the spiritual
life of the congregation, among other things (see The Evangelical Free
Church of Finland). Almost every congregation has its own church
building and one or more full-time preachers (Heino 85). In addition,
members of the congregation are usually given different areas of
responsibility in the congregation; taking part in different activities,
such as singing in a choir or taking part in childcare during meetings, is
not only encouraged but also very common.
Even though every congregation is independent of other Pentecostal
congregations, this does not mean that they would not cooperate. Every
year the elders and other workers of the congregations gather to a
conference called Talvipäivät ("winter days"), which is held in
January in rotating locations. During the Talvipäivät conference, the
participants discuss the nationwide situation of the movement and
different spiritual matters. Even though no final decisions are made
during this conference, it is an important part of Finnish Pentecostalism,
as its participants develop the guidelines for the congregations for the
During the last decade of the 20th century, participants of the
Talvipäivät conference often discussed the need to establish Finnish
Pentecostalism as a registered religious community for practical reasons.
One of these practical matters was that by registering, Pentecostal
priests would gain the right to officiate in weddings. In 2001, this was
finally decided, and in March 2003 the official registration took place.
The new registered religious community was called Suomen
Helluntaikirkko, the Pentecostal Church of Finland. Each local
congregation can decide whether or not it would like to join the
Pentecostal Church (Suomen, Perustaminen). The purpose of the Pentecostal
Church of Finland is to help organize the work of the local congregations
and promote cooperation between them, but in no way to diminish their
independence and freedom in decision-making (Suomen, SHK).
Nevertheless, the registration has not been welcomed in every
congregation, since many are careful not to let go of the independence of
the local congregation, even if their autonomy would not be diminished in
practice. So far, there are about 10,000 members in congregations that are
part of the Pentecostal Church of Finland, when altogether there are some
50,000 members in all of the Finnish Pentecostal congregations (Suomen,
The Beliefs of the Finnish Pentecostal Congregations
Even though Pentecostalism is widely known for its emphasis on the work of
the Holy Spirit, it should be mentioned that this does not form the core
of the denomination's doctrine. Like most other Christian denominations,
Pentecostalism sees the starting point and the sole basis for Christianity
to be the work of Christ. In other words, the point is not what the Holy
Spirit does but what God the Father does through Jesus Christ and the Holy
Spirit (Kärkkäinen 318).
In the 2001 Talvipäivät conference the main points of the beliefs of
the Finnish Pentecostal congregations were established. Prior to this, no
universally accepted list of beliefs had been drafted, even though the
Apostles' Creed could be, and still is, used as a statement of the beliefs
of the Finnish Pentecostal congregations5
The beliefs that had formed the basis for the teachings of
different congregations previously did not differ much from the 2001
document. It was more like a written establishment of what had already
existed in unwritten form. The reason why no clear doctrine had been
established earlier is that the foundation of the Pentecostal faith has
always been the Holy Bible; in order to maintain the authority of the
Bible, it had been felt that no other written document should have a
similar position (Kärkkäinen 318).
The document formulated in 2001 consists of ten points, the first being
the unquestionable authority of the Bible when it comes to forming any
Christian doctrine. The points having to do with the doctrine of Trinity
or the importance and role of Jesus Christ in Christianity do not differ
from the beliefs of other Protestant churches, including the Evangelical
Lutheran Church of Finland (Suomen, Helluntaiseurakunnan). However, some
differences do exist between the doctrines of these two denominations, the
clearest of which are covered in the following paragraphs6.
The Holy Spirit
Both denominations agree on the fact that the Holy Spirit is the one who
arouses faith in a person and that the Holy Spirit is God's presence on
earth. However, the Lutheran doctrine states that the Spirit works through
the Word of God and the sacraments (which are Baptism and Holy Communion7), and that in baptism the Holy Spirit is
granted to a person (Aamenesta, Jolkkonen).
In Pentecostalism there is no such concept as a sacrament; the work of
the Holy Spirit is considered to be direct and personal and not
necessarily dependent on any external factors. According to the
Pentecostal faith, the Holy Spirit resides in every born-again Christian.
After a person is born again, Jesus Christ baptizes him or her with the
Holy Spirit, thus giving the person charismata, or spiritual gifts
(Suomen, Helluntaiseurakunnan). The concept of charismata is not
unfamiliar to the Lutheran doctrine either, but is often narrower than the
Pentecostal view, consisting only of the so-called natural or ordinary
gifts of God.
The theological views of baptism in Pentecostalism are quite similar to
those in The Evangelical Free Church of Finland; only those who
personally believe in Jesus Christ as their Savior can be baptized, thus
ruling out infants. However, within the Pentecostal Movement, when a
person is baptized, most often he or she automatically becomes a member of
the local congregation8. Thus only
baptized believers can be members of the congregation. This is also
clearly mentioned in the 2001 document of beliefs, where it is said that
the congregation is a "community of believers." The Pentecostal baptism is
done by immersion (Suomen, Helluntaiseurakunnan).
According to the Lutheran doctrine, a person is granted the Holy Spirit
and every other gift of God in baptism. This also means that in baptism a
person is born again, even though baptism itself without personal faith
does not save a person (Jolkkonen). For more information on the practices
of Lutheran baptism, see The Evangelical Free Church of Finland.
Christian eschatology has always had a place in the Pentecostal teachings,
and this is also stated in the 2001 document of beliefs. The beliefs are
that everyone will be resurrected physically, some to eternal life and
others to eternal death, and that in the End Times before the second
coming of Christ, the Rapture will take place (the transportation of
believers from earth to heaven) (Suomen, Helluntaiseurakunnan). It is
obvious that this doctrine has a strong premise that the Bible can be
taken literally and that it contains supernatural information concerning
the final events and all future, which is a characteristic feature of the
Pentecostal faith. While Christian eschatology may not be wholly foreign
to Lutherans, it does not have as strong a position in the Lutheran
doctrine as it does in Pentecostalism.
The Congregational Life in Finnish Pentecostalism
In practice, when Finns with a traditional Lutheran background come to a
Pentecostal meeting for the first time, the difference to what they have
experienced in their own church can be quite remarkable. Pentecostalism
has always emphasized the importance of personal experience in meeting
God, and it is thought that a person cannot have this experience only
through traditions or with the help of other people. There is a saying
within Finnish Pentecostalism that "God doesn't have grandchildren"
in other words, there should be no one between God and a person, His
child. This also emphasizes the importance of personal experience
Basically, a service in a Pentecostal congregation has the same
elements as a service in most other Christian churches: prayer, a sermon
and singing. However, there is no set liturgy or strict schedule for the
services, since it is considered important to remain open to guidance by
the Holy Spirit (Kärkkäinen 314-315). A lot of worship and praise is
included in a Pentecostal service, and singing is usually accompanied by
instruments, such as pianos, guitars, drums and so on. The music is often
very lively, and people worship God by singing and raising their hands.
Some people dance before the Lord; others might sing in tongues
This is very different from the traditional Lutheran service, which
follows a specific liturgy and which, for instance, often has only the
traditional organ as a musical instrument. The Lutheran service has a more
tranquil nature; for instance clapping hands is far less common in a
traditional Lutheran service than in a Pentecostal service. However,
within the Lutheran Church there is increasingly more variety in the form
of the services nowadays than had been the case in the past. Along with
the traditional service, there can also be services which resemble the
form that is traditionally considered to belong to the free churches.
Prayer, as mentioned, is an essential part of the Pentecostal service.
People who want the congregation to pray for them specifically often write
their prayer items on a piece of paper which they then bring to the
service. These prayer items are often read aloud, after which the whole
congregation prays for the individuals who submitted the prayers. Also
personal intercession is almost always available in the services, as at
the end of the service people can come to the front of the room or hall
where appointed workers can listen to and pray for them. It is also very
common that in a Pentecostal service those who are sick are prayed for or
anointed with oil according to the practice mentioned in the New
Testament9 (Kärkkäinen 316).
Organizations and Activities of the Finnish Pentecostal Movement
All of the organizations and corporations mentioned in this section are
independent of the Pentecostal Church of Finland and the individual
Pentecostal congregations. However, the organizations have originated
within the Pentecostal Movement for the purpose of coordinating the
congregations' work on a national level10.
As with many other free churches in Finland, such as the Evangelical Free
Church of Finland, Finnish Pentecostalism is also widely known for its
efforts in missionary work. The central organization of the missionary
work of the Finnish Pentecostal congregations, founded in 1927, is called
Fida International, formerly known as Finnish Free Foreign Mission
(Suomen Vapaa Ulkolähetys). When counting the number of missionary
workers, Fida International is the largest mission and development
cooperation organization in Finland, and also the largest one in Europe
with a Pentecostal background. In 2005, Fida International had 370
missionaries in 53 countries (Fida, Käkkäinen 313).
Ristin Voitto ry
Ristin Voitto ("the victory of the Cross") is the name of the main
newspaper of the Pentecostal congregations. Ristin Voitto comes out
once a week, and it has been published since 1912. The first issues of
Ristin Voitto were translated from the Norwegian paper Korsets
Seier (the victory of the Cross in Norwegian), which was published by
Reverend Thomas Ball Barratt (Ristin, Ahonen 61).
Avainmedia ry (the "Key media" registered association) is the
publishing house of Finnish Pentecostalism that is specialized in
missionary work both in Finland and abroad. Avainmedia publishes
Christian radio, TV and video programs as well as printed publications.
Avainmedia is especially concentrated on spreading the Gospel in
the most spoken languages of the world: Arabic, Chinese and Russian
(Avainmedia, Työnäky; Kärkkäinen 314). The organization has also focused
on Bible translations in Finno-Ugrian languages (Avainmedia,
Kristillinen Alkoholi- ja Narkomaanityö (KAN) ry
The Pentecostal congregations also have an organization specialized in
drug rehabilitation. This is called KAN ry ("Christian rehabilitation work
among alcoholics and drug users"). The organization's rehabilitation
program includes residential treatment, out-patient treatment and drug
prevention education, among other things (KAN).
Iso Kirja ry
Iso Kirja ("the Big Book") is the conference and training/education
center of the Pentecostal congregations, situated in the town of Keuruu in
Central Finland. Iso Kirja is a Christian folk high school and
Bible school, which offers courses in Bible study as well as in youth
ministry and missionary work. Iso Kirja is also the home of Global
University Finland, the Finnish branch of the American Global University,
headquartered in Springfield, Missouri, which offers the possibility to
get college degrees in Pentecostal theology11 (Iso, Kärkkäinen 313).
The most important activities of the Pentecostal congregations are
naturally their weekly services. Revival and evangelizing meetings also
form an important part of the congregations' activities (Heino 85).
Child and Youth Ministries
Child and youth ministries are organized in the local congregations, which
means that there can be some variation in the activities the congregations
offer to children and youth. The activities mentioned here are most common
and can be found at least in larger congregations.
Every congregation has some kind of child ministry, usually in the form
of Sunday schools; most often a congregation's youth ministry includes
services organized especially for young people. The Pentecostal Movement
does not have a confirmation school like the Lutheran Church, but an
alternative camp called Fifteen-leiri ("Fifteen camp"). The
objective of the camp is to help 15-year-olds grow as Christians and
become mature followers of Christ. The camps are organized in Iso
Kirja or wherever the congregation chooses. For instance, the
Pentecostal congregation of Seinäjoki organizes the Fifteen-leiri
each year in Fuengirola, Spain (Kallioinen et al.).
Royal Rangers is the scout movement of the Pentecostal
congregations. It was founded in the 1960s in the United States by Rev.
Johnnie Barnes of the Assemblies of God (Royal). In 1996, Royal Rangers
Finland was established; it is now active in over 60 congregations
throughout the country. Royal Rangers provide Bible studies and outdoor
activities for children from the age of 7 to 17 (Yleistietoja).
Every August a large Pentecostal youth conference called Youth
Celebration is organized in the Iso Kirja conference center.
The conference lasts for a weekend and contains a lot of music and
teaching. Youth Celebration is one of the largest Christian youth events
in Finland (YC).
Ministry Among the Romany Community
The Romany people form a significant minority in Finland; from the
beginning of the Pentecostal Movement they have been actively involved in
its activities. There are around 10,000 Romany people in Finland today and
some 3,000 Finnish Romany in Sweden (Lindberg et al.). Even though the
Romany people form a small minority in the Finnish Pentecostal
congregations, the number of Pentecostal Romany people is significant
within their own ethnic group. Their culture has been very
visible in the congregations, as several renowned Romany musicians have
brought their music to the services (Ahonen 352).
The Finnish Pentecostal Movement has also been active in the work of
Romano Missio, a national child welfare and social service
organization, which produces Christian and educational services for the
Romany people. The Romano Missio organization cooperates with different
Christian denominations, local authorities and the state as well as Romany
organizations (Romano). The Pentecostal preacher Viljo Koivisto has
devoted his career to spreading the Gospel among the Romany people; he is
also well known for his achievements in translating the Bible into the
Finnish Romany language (Ahonen 352).
Juhannuskonferenssi (Midsummer Conference)
Juhannuskonferenssi, or the Midsummer Conference, is held every
year in Iso Kirja around Midsummer's Day. The conference lasts from
Wednesday to Sunday, and gathers some 30,000 people yearly. The conference
consists of different services that are held in pavilions that are erected
on the premises of Iso Kirja. There is a lot of Bible teaching and
music events, as well as services for young people and children
especially. The Midsummer Conference is an important meeting place for
members of Pentecostalism in Finland (Konferenssin).
The Relations between Pentecostalism and Lutheranism
The Pentecostal Movement has not only formed a denomination of its own,
but has also had a strong influence on other denominations. Especially
from the 1960s onwards several charismatic movements have taken form
within other Churches in Finland as well as in other countries. In
this means that the work of the Holy Spirit and the charismata has also
been introduced to other denominations; they are no longer characteristic
only of Pentecostalism (Heino 61, Kärkkäinen 302).
Much of the influence of the Pentecostal Movement in Finland on other
churches originated in a charismatic movement which began in the 1970s.
This was primarily due to a Pentecostal preacher, Niilo Yli-Vainio, who
held revival meetings throughout Finland in the 1970s and 1980s. Niilo
Yli-Vainio and his work were widely noticed in the secular media, since
during these meetings there were many strong manifestations of the Holy
Spirit. People were healed supernaturally; many would fall on the ground.
Lutherans who experienced the Spirit baptism in Yli-Vainio's meetings were
not asked to leave their church and join Pentecostalism; instead they
organized within the Lutheran Church. Today there are several movements
within the Lutheran Church that are considered charismatic; in 1995 there
was charismatic activity in 13% of all the Lutheran congregations (Heino
61-62, Kärkkäinen 308).
The presence of this charismatic activity in the Lutheran Church has
remained somewhat controversial, as while some charismatic movements are
well accepted, especially those that have existed a longer time, others
are not. In fact, the official relationship between the Lutheran Church
and one of these more recent movements (Nokia Missio) has become
rather inflamed and is closely monitored even by the secular media. The
situation in by March-April 2007 reached the point where the leader of
this charismatic movement, a Lutheran pastor, was under threat of losing
his office (Markku).
Like other free churches, Pentecostalism often has a reserved attitude
toward ecumenical activities. Even though adherents of Pentecostalism
believe in the unity of all believers no matter their denomination, they
might have reservations against working officially with denominations that
do not have as fundamentalist a view on the Bible as they do. Locally,
though, Pentecostal and Lutheran congregations, as well as other Christian
denominations, often cooperate in various ways: for instance, different
churches in a particular area might organize joint services or
evangelizing meetings, or other outreach activities (Kärkkäinen 321).
Pentecostalism as a Finnish Institution
As of spring 2007, Pentecostalism has existed in Finland and influenced
the lives of Finns for almost a hundred years. In 2003 the movement became
a registered religious community, which had been considered unnecessary,
or even harmful, in the past. However, the changes in the organizational
structure of the Pentecostal Movement have not influenced the lives of
individuals within the movement to a very large extent.
The Pentecostal Movement is a free church, and thus has a lot in common
with other Finnish and global free churches. This is evident in the
doctrine of the denomination, which places the Word of God, the Holy
Bible, above all other authorities. This means that the Bible is
interpreted in a more fundamentalist way than what might be common in some
other Christian denominations.
The most characteristic part of the movement's doctrine is often
thought to be the work of the Holy Spirit a thought which was only
strengthened by the media attention that the Pentecostal preacher Niilo
Yli-Vainio, and thus the whole movement, received in the 1970s and 1980s
due to the visible and in some way extraordinary manifestations of the
Holy Spirit. But even though it might be common among Finns to think that
Pentecostalism is a denomination that is solely focused on the Holy
Spirit, this is not the case. As in any Christian denomination, the center
point is Jesus Christ. However, in comparison with other denominations
which might have a different view of the Holy Spirit, such as the
Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, Pentecostalism does give the Holy
Spirit a major role both in the denomination's doctrine and in the
every-day lives of individual believers.
Even though Pentecostalism is a major part of Christianity in a
worldwide perspective, it is still considered a marginal denomination in
Finland. However, Pentecostalism is nevertheless a significant part of the
Finnish religious landscape. Even the Evangelical Lutheran Church, which
is the country's largest Christian denomination, has been influenced by
Pentecostalism, even though this influence might not have always been
fully embraced or openly discussed by the Lutheran Church. But due to this
influential position, the Pentecostal Movement can be thought to have a
deeper significance on Christianity in Finland than its relatively modest
number of adherents might suggest.
- The terms getting baptized with the Holy Spirit and being
filled with the Holy Spirit differ slightly. A born-again Christian
can be baptized with the Spirit only once and thus be filled with the
Spirit for the first time. After this first experience, a Christian can
(and should) be filled with the Spirit on a daily basis (Suomen, Uskon).
- The term Church in this paper refers only to the universal
body of Christ, i.e. everyone who has defined him or herself as a
Christian. The term Pentecostal Church refers to the umbrella
organization of Finnish Pentecostalism (see more in the section The
Organization of Finnish Pentecostalism), and (Pentecostal)
congregation refers to the local organized assembly of (Pentecostal)
Christians. Even though the terms church and congregation
can sometimes both refer to the local assembly, I have separated them to
- Since this is a paper on a Finnish institution, I do not look very
deeply into the worldwide situation of Pentecostalism. However, since
there has been a misunderstanding concerning Pentecostalism in the USA in
another Finnish Institutions paper (Laestadianism in
Finland), I feel compelled to correct this misapprehension. In the USA
as well as in Finland, Baptism and Pentecostalism are two different
denominations, which nevertheless have a lot in common (e.g. the baptism
of believers). Baptism had an influence on the birth of Pentecostalism,
but today they are completely different, separate denominations (Heino
- Only baptized persons can be members of Pentecostal congregations,
so for instance children cannot be counted in the number of members. More
information can be found in the later section of this paper titled The
Beliefs of the Finnish Pentecostal congregations and Baptism.
- The Apostles' Creed is also used in the Evangelical Lutheran Church
of Finland, which thereby makes it widely known among Finnish Christians.
- I will only focus on the official doctrine of the Evangelical
Lutheran Church of Finland, or so-called "main-line" Finnish Lutheranism,
even though there are several movements within the Lutheran Church with
views that are closer to those of Pentecostalism.
- Holy Communion is an important part of the Pentecostal
Congregational life, too, even though it is not considered as a
"sacrament". The Pentecostal view of Communion is similar to that of
The Evangelical Free Church of Finland. For more information, see
The Evangelical Lutheran Church of
- Of course it is possible to get baptised in one congregation and
join another, if for instance a person is baptised somewhere else than in
his or her home town.
- James 5:14. "Is anyone among you sick? Let him call for the elders
of the church, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the
name of the Lord."
- There are also other organizations within the Finnish Pentecostal
Movement in addition to those named in this chapter. For more information
on all of the Pentecostal organizations in Finland, see www.ecredo.fi/helluntaikirkko/jarjestot/.
The site is in Finnish.
- For more information on Global University, see www.globaluniversity.edu. The
site is in English.
- Aamenesta öylättiin
Kirkollinen Sanasto. The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. 13
November 2003 Update.
- Ahonen, Lauri. Suomen helluntaiherätyksen historia.
Hämeenlinna: Päivä Osakeyhtiö, 1994.
- Avainmedia. Työnäky. Viewed 15
- - - -. Kirjallisuus. Viewed
15 March 2007.
- Brown, Christopher E. Pentecostalism.
Religious Movements. University of Virginia. 11 August 2001 Update.
- The Catholic Encyclopedia. Pentecost (Jewish
Feast). New Advent. Consulted 20 February 2007.
Fida International Today and in the Past. Fida Info: General
Information. Fida International. Viewed 15 March 2007.
of Religion Act No. 453 of 6 June 2003. Register of Associations.
National Board of Patents and Registration of Finland. 2 June 2005
- Heino, Harri. Mihin Suomi tänään uskoo. Helsinki: Werner
Söderström Osakeyhtiö, 2002.
- The Holy Bible. New King James Version. Nashville: Thomas
Nelson Publishers, 1982.
- Iso Kirja koulutuskeskus. Mikä
on Iso Kirja? Viewed 15 March 2007.
- Jolkkonen, Jari. Luterilainen
kasteteologia ja sen liturgiset seuraukset. Published in Teologinen
- Kallioinen, Heli, Marja-Liisa Nurminen, and Timo Muola. Helluntaiherätys.
RaamattuNET uskonnon opetuksen kotisivu. Suomen
uskonnonopettajain liitto. Viewed 15 March 2007.
- KAN ry, Kristillinen alkoholisti- ja
narkomaanityö ry. Viewed 15 March 2007.
- Kärkkäinen, Veli-Matti. Vapaakristillisyys, helluntailaisuus ja
baptismi. Kirkkotiedon kirja Ekumeeninen johdatus kirkkojen
oppiin ja elämään. Ed. Pekka Metso and Esko Ryökäs. Pieksämäki:
Kirjapaja Oy, 2005. 285-326.
Mikä on Juhannuskonferenssi? Konferenssin tiedotus. Viewed 15
- Lindberg, Väinö, Henry Hedman, Tuula Lindberg, Tuula Åkerlund,
Veijo Rantala, Pirkko Mahlamäki, and Katriina Nousiainen. Suomen
romanien historia. The JOIN Project. The European Union against
Discrimination. Viewed 16 March 2007.
Koivistolle kuukausi aikaa sitoutua Tampereen tuomiokapitulin
ohjeisiin. News at evl.fi (official site of the Evangelical Lutheran
Church of Finland). Kirkon tiedotuskeskus. Published 14 March 2007, 12.18
- Ristin Voitto. Mediatiedot.
Viewed 15 March 2007.
Missio. Viewed 18 March 2007.
- Royal Rangers. A Brief History of
Royal Rangers. Assemblies of God USA. Viewed 15 March 2007.
- Suomen Helluntaikirkko. Helluntaiseurakunnan
uskon pääkohdat. Viewed 20 February 2007.
- - - -. SHK-strategia
31.12.2006. Viewed 13 March 2007.
- - - -. Suomen
Helluntaikirkon perustaminen. Viewed 13 March 2007.
- - - -. Suomen
Helluntaikirkon uskontunnustus. Viewed 13 March 2007.
Väestö. Valtiovarainministeriö [Ministry of Finance].
Suomi.fi-portaali. 19 January 2007 Update.
- Tuikkala, Jenni. The Evangelical Free Church of
Finland. Finnish Institutions Research Paper, Spring 2005. [No
longer online as of 24 September 2007.]
- Yamane, David. Pentecostalism.
Encyclopedia of Religion and Society. Hartford Institute for
Religion Research. Consulted 20 February 2007.
- YC 2006. Youth
Celebration. 30 August 2006 Update.
Royal Rangers. Viewed 12 April 2007.
Religion and Church Papers Index
Index of All Finnish Institutions Papers
Last Updated 23 April 2010